Table 1.

Characteristics of all enrolled patients at baseline (n=150)

CharacteristicSelective Duplex, n=75Routine Duplex, n=75
Men, n (%)56 (74.7)49 (65.3)
Age, yr, median (IQR)56 (48.8–62.3)54 (45–63)
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD)a22.9 (3.6)23.9 (3.6)
Cause of ESRD, n (%)
 Diabetes32 (42.7)35 (46.7)
 Hypertension8 (10.7)4 (5.3)
 IgA nephropathy12 (16.0)5 (6.7)
 Chronic GN7 (9.3)3 (4.0)
 ADPKD3 (4.0)5 (6.7)
 FSGS1 (1.3)3 (4.0)
 Malignancy03 (4.0)
 Obstructive uropathy02 (2.7)
 Other3 (4.0)4 (5.3)
 Unknown9 (12.0)11 (14.7)
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Diabetes40 (53.3)38 (50.7)
 Hypertension49 (83.1)49 (83.1)
 Coronary artery diseaseb13 (17.3)7 (9.3)
 Cerebrovascular diseasec5 (6.7)4 (5.3)
Antiplatelet or anticoagulant use, n (%)d28 (37.3)22 (29.3)
Previous dialysis, n (%)
 No32 (42.7)43 (57.3)
 Hemodialysis36 (48.0)29 (38.7)
 Peritoneal dialysis7 (9.3)3 (4.0)
Previous dialysis duration, n (%)Ntotal=44Ntotal=32
 <3 mo30 (68.2)25 (78.1)
 3 mo to <1 yr3 (6.8)3 (9.4)
 1 yr11 (23.0)4 (12.5)
Planned site of AVF creation after preoperative PE, n (%)
 RCAVF, nondominant arm50 (66.7)43 (57.3)
 BCAVF, nondominant arm19 (25.3)22 (29.3)
 RCAVF, dominant arm3 (4.0)4 (5.3)
 BCAVF, dominant arm3 (4.0)1 (1.3)
 Prosthetic graft05 (6.7)
Actual site of AVF formation, n (%)
 RCAVF, nondominant arme52 (69.3)48 (64.0)
 BCAVF, nondominant arm17 (22.7)21 (28.0)
 RCAVF, dominant arme3 (4.0)4 (5.3)
 BCAVF, dominant arm3 (4.0)2 (2.7)
Inflow artery diameter, mm, median (IQR)f2.4 (2.0–3.3)2.3 (2.0–3.6)
Outflow CV diameter, mm, median (IQR)f2.7 (2.4–3.6)2.8 (2.4–3.6)
  • No between-group differences were significant at P<0.05. IQR, interquartile range; ADPKD, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; AVF, arteriovenous fistula; PE, physical examination; RCAVF, radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula; BCAVF, brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula; CV, cephalic vein.

  • a Body mass index = weight (kg)/height2 (m2); three measurements in the selective duplex group and 11 measurements in the routine duplex group were missing.

  • b Patients were considered to have coronary artery disease if they had been diagnosed with myocardial infarction or unstable or stable angina.

  • c Patients were considered to have cerebrovascular disease if they had been diagnosed with cerebral infarction or a transient ischemic attack.

  • d Antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy included the use of aspirin, clopidogrel, cilostazole, or warfarin as a single agent or in combination.

  • e All RCAVFs were formed at the wrist (Brescia–Cimino) through an end to side anastomosis between the CV and radial artery.

  • f The inflow artery diameter was the radial or brachial artery diameter measured by preoperative duplex examination at the level where the anastomosis site was later created. Similarly, the outflow CV diameter was the preoperative CV diameter at the level where the anastomosis site was later created.