Table 3.

Characteristics associated with each treatment group for advanced kidney disease (n=28,568)

Characteristics at Cohort EntryaORa (95% CI)
Received Dialysis by Chart ReviewDiscussing or Preparing for DialysisDecision against Dialysis
Age, yr
 <65ReferenceReferenceReference
 65–741.65 (1.29 to 2.11)1.32 (1.07 to 1.63)2.08 (1.65 to 2.63)
  ≥751.44 (1.11 to 1.86)1.46 (1.19 to 1.80)5.83 (4.74 to 7.17)
Race
 WhiteReferenceReferenceReference
 Black0.98 (0.77 to 1.24)0.81 (0.66 to 0.99)0.70 (0.58 to 0.84)
 Other2.87 (2.20 to 3.76)2.98 (2.40 to 3.70)2.17 (1.74 to 2.72)
Sex, men (versus women)1.47 (0.54 to 4.01)1.14 (0.56 to 2.35)1.00 (0.50 to 2.02)
Burden of comorbidity
 LowReferenceReferenceReference
 Moderate1.99 (1.51 to 2.64)1.35 (1.10 to 1.66)1.54 (1.26 to 1.89)
 High3.38 (2.43 to 4.71)1.64 (1.25 to 2.15)3.07 (2.42 to 3.90)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension0.84 (0.56 to 1.26)0.75 (0.54 to 1.04)0.54 (0.42 to 0.70)
 Coronary artery disease1.13 (0.90 to 1.40)1.15 (0.96 to 1.38)0.86 (0.73 to 1.01)
 Congestive heart failure1.19 (0.94 to 1.52)0.98 (0.80 to 1.21)1.03 (0.86 to 1.23)
 Diabetes mellitus0.68 (0.55 to 0.84)0.64 (0.54 to 0.76)0.78 (0.67 to 0.91)
 Peripheral artery disease1.01 (0.77 to 1.32)1.01 (0.80 to 1.28)0.94 (0.77 to 1.15)
 Cancer1.28 (1.01 to 1.6301.50 (1.23 to 1.82)1.40 (1.19 to 1.65)
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.47 (1.17 to 1.86)1.42 (1.16 to 1.75)1.33 (1.11 to 1.58)
 Dementia1.99 (1.18 to 3.36)1.68 (1.03 to 2.76)3.41 (2.53 to 4.60)
 Stroke0.71 (0.48 to 1.03)1.16 (0.88 to 1.52)1.40 (1.11 to 1.75)
 Cirrhosis2.98 (1.78 to 4.97)1.84 (1.07 to 3.15)1.91 (1.11 to 3.29)
≥4 (versus <4) Nephrology clinic visits in year prior0.40 (0.32 to 0.50)0.54 (0.45 to 0.65)0.32 (0.26 to 1.09)
  • Multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age, race, sex, comorbidity burden, comorbidities, prior nephrology care, and year of cohort entry. aOR, adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Reference group includes patients who were enrolled in the US Renal Data System or had a dialysis procedure code in Medicare or Department of Veteran Affairs administrative files.