Table 2.

Characteristics after admission in patients with and without AKI progression

VariablesAKI progressionP Value
Yes (n=50)No (n=163)
Timing of AKI
 AKI on admission, n (%)6 (12.0)22 (13.5)0.99
 Within 4 d after admission, n (%)46 (92.0)135(82.8)0.17
Use of loop-diureticsa
 Before AKI diagnosis, mg/d46.5±22.140.5±20.60.08
 On the day of AKI diagnosis, mg/d49.0±23.542.1±22.80.06
Use of spironolactone
 Before AKI diagnosis, n (%)20 (40.0)78 (47.9)0.41
 On the day of AKI diagnosis, n (%)20 (40.0)78 (47.9)0.41
Use of RAS inhibitors
 Before AKI diagnosis, n (%)19 (38.0)73 (44.8)0.42
 On the day of AKI diagnosis, n (%)19 (38.0)73 (44.8)0.42
Biomarkers on the day of AKI diagnosis
 SCr, mg/dl2.1±0.851.8±0.70.01
 Change in SCr, mg/dlb0.7±0.50.5±0.40.05
 Change in SCrc, %48.4±27.745.9±23.00.52
 uAGT, μg/g Cr224.5 (108.8–483.8)44.8 (9.3–146.2)<0.001
 pAGT, μg/L27.8±5.726.5±5.50.15
 uNGAL, μg/g Cr311.3 (87.5–1883.8)58.8 (29.8–197.3)<0.001
 pNGAL, ng/ml238.0 (152.9–335.4)179.0 (115.2–258.2)0.001
 uIL-18, ng/g Cr748.4 (68.7–1964.9)52.0 (16.0–215.2)<0.001
 uKIM-1, μg/g Cr4.6 (2.5–8.0)2.6 (1.6–4.9)0.001
 UACR, mg/g Cr292.3 (138.2–964.9)154.0 (49.8–382.0)0.001
In-hospital outcomes
 Hospital-free daysd0 (0–18)18 (10–20)0.001
 ICU-free daysd13 (0–21)22 (15–24)<0.001
 Acute dialysis, n (%)13 (26.0)0 (0)<0.001
 In-hospital death, n (%)18 (36.0)25 (15.3)0.002
  • Continuous variables were expressed as mean±SD or median (25th percentile – 75th percentile, interquartile range). Categorical variables were expressed as a number (%). SCr, serum creatinine; uAGT, urinary angiotensinogen; pAGT, plasma angiotensinogen; uNGAL, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; pNGAL plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; uIL-18, urinary IL-18; uKIM-1, urinary kidney injury molecule-1; UACR, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio; ICU, Intensive-care unit.

  • a Average daily dose of intravenous furosemide (oral dosage × 0.5, as oral bioavailability is about 50%).

  • b Serum creatinine level on the day of AKI diagnosis minus baseline serum creatinine level.

  • c (SCr level on the day of AKI diagnosis − baseline SCr level)/ baseline SCr level × 100%.

  • d 28 minus the number of hospital or ICU days, with a score of zero assigned to patients who died.