Table 7.

Timing of occurrence of maximum biomarker before AKI diagnosis by serum creatinine criteria

BiomarkerMedian Time (Range), dMean Time±SD, d Presented Maximum (or Minimuma) Values Any Time Before AKI Diagnosis, n/n (%)Presented Maximum (or Minimuma) Values on, or the Day Before, AKI Diagnosis, n/n (%)
Albumin1 (−4, 2)0.8±1.615/27 (56)21/27 (78)
B2M1 (−4, 2)1.4±1.718/27 (66)21/27 (78)
Calbindin0 (−4, 2)0.8±1.612/27 (44)22/27 (81)
Clusterin0 (−4, 2)0.5±1.415/27 (56)22/27 (81)
Cystatin C1 (−4, 1)0.8±1.413/27 (48)22/27 (81)
EGFa1 (−4, 2)1.3±1.712/27 (44)22/27 (81)
α-GST1 (−4, 1)0.9±1.414/27 (52)21/27 (78)
KIM-11 (−4, 2)0.9±1.516/27 (59)23/27 (85)
NGAL0 (−4, 1)0.7±1.612/27 (44)21/27 (78)
OPN1 (−3, 2)0.7±1.215/27 (56)23/27 (85)
Osteoactivin0 (−3, 1)0.7±1.513/27 (38)21/27 (78)
TFF30 (−3, 2)0.6±1.412/27 (44)21/27 (78)
VEGF1 (−3, 1)0.7±1.514/27 (52)21/27 (78)
UMODa1 (−4, 2)1.3±1.819/27 (70)22/27 (81)
  • Day of AKI diagnosis: median, 4; range, 2–5; mean, 3.4; SD, 1.1. Unless otherwise noted, values are maximum biomarker levels. B2M, β2-microglobulin; EGF, epithelial growth factor; α-GST, α-glutathione-S-transferase; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule 1; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; OPN, osteopontin; TFF3, trefoil factor 3; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; UMOD, uromodulin.

  • a Minimum values.