Table 1.

Characteristics in patients with and without AKI progression

DemographicsAKI progressionP Value
Yes (n=50)No (n=163)
Age, y66.8±17.670.6±12.20.09
Male, n (%)26 (52.0)108 (66.3)0.09
Hypertension, n (%)24 (48.0)105 (64.4)0.05
Diabetes, n (%)20 (40.0)55 (33.7)0.49
Prior CKDa, n (%)22 (44.0)60 (36.8)0.41
Prior hospitalization for HF, n (%)25 (50.0)88 (54.0)0.63
Primary diseases of heart failure
 Ischemic heart disease, n (%)28 (56.0)90 (55.2)0.99
 Hypertensive heart disease, n (%)7 (14.0)30 (18.4)0.53
 Rheumatic heart disease, n (%)4 (8.0)11 (6.7)0.76
 Cardiomyopathy, n (%)7 (14.0)21 (12.9)0.81
 Other, n (%)4 (8.0)11 (6.7)0.76
Preadmission medication
 ACEI/ARB, n (%)15 (30.0)52 (32.0)0.86
β-blockers, n (%)9 (18.0)40 (24.5)0.44
 Spironolactone, n (%)10 (20.0)44 (27.0)0.36
 Loop diuretics, n (%)14 (28.0)53 (32.5)0.60
Preadmission (baseline) renal function
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl1.45±0.71.30±0.50.11
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73m2 b59.1±28.363.4±24.00.29
Parameters on admission
 LVEF (%)42 (40–63)41 (36–58)0.22
 NYHA (class IV), n (%)20 (40.0)89 (54.6)0.08
 NT-proBNP, pg/ml9000 (3656–24139)6647 (3185–9000)0.02
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl1.6±0.81.5±0.80.41
 Serum albumin, g/dl2.9±0.63.2±0.50.001
 Serum triglyceride, mmol/L1.6±0.81.7±0.70.39
 Serum cholesterol, mmol/L3.8±0.93.8±0.60.99
 Serum sodium, mmol/L138.3±5.0138.0±5.00.71
 Serum potassium, mmol/L4.2±0.84.1±0.60.34
 Hemoglobin, g/dl10.8±2.411.8±2.60.04
  • Continuous variables were expressed as mean±SD or median (25th percentile – 75th percentile, interquartile range). Categorical variables were expressed as a number (%). AKI progression is defined as worsening of AKI stage. HF, heart failure; ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II type I receptor blockers; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NYHA, New York Heart Association; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.

  • a Defined as preadmission eGFR<60ml/min per 1.73m2. Preadmission eGFR was calculated by CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration equation according to at least three measurements of serum creatinine over a 6-month period before admission.