Table 4.

Differences in biomarker/urine creatinine in infants with and without AKI

BiomarkerFold Difference for AKI versus No AKIMedian Values (IQR) in AKI Group (n=27) Median Values (IQR) in Group Without AKI (n=84) P Value
Albumin1.7× higher4.25×108 (2.28×108, 9.62×108)2.40×108 (1.54×108, 4.46×108)0.01
B2M1.6× higher16.0×107 (10.3×107, 23.1×107)9.93×107 (6.63×107, 15.4×107)0.01
Cystatin C2.8× higher20.7×106 (4.42×106, 36.3×106)7.23×106 (2.43×106, 16.8×106)0.002
EGFa6.9×102 (4.44×102, 9.1×102)7.5×102 (5.4×102, 9.9×102)0.2
NGAL1.9× higher6.11×106 (3.38×106, 18.9×106)3.17×106 (1.59×106, 6.08×106)0.003
OPN1.7× higher7.75×106 (4.91×106, 18.3×106)4.64×106 (3.04×106, 6.98×106)0.001
UMODa1.3× lower6.0×106 (4.40×106, 8.7×106)7.8×106 (6.1×106, 10.0×106)0.02
Clusterin2.0× higher3.45×106 (2.14×106, 6.04×106)1.69×106 (1.14×106, 3.34×106)0.004
KIM-13.59×104 (1.91×104, 7.71×104)2.73×104 (1.71×104, 5.09×104)0.25
Osteoactivin1.86×104 (1.08×104, 2.67×104)1.56×104 (1.20×104, 1.90×104)0.43
TFF310.2×104 (6.99×104, 24.9×104)10.0×104 (5.84×104, 16.2×104)0.30
VEGF1.6× higher18.3×103 (9.95×103, 21.7×103)11.3×103 (6.95×103, 18.2×103)0.03
Calbindin8.90×104 (5.49×104, 16.1×104)6.97×104 (4.94×104, 11.5×104)0.21
α-GST4.6× higher103×102 (23.6×102, 518×102)22.1×102 (7.91×102, 95.4×102)<0.001
  • Unless otherwise noted, values are maximum biomarker levels. Biomarker values are expressed as pg/mg creatinine. IQR, interquartile range; B2M, β2-microglobulin; EGF, epithelial growth factor; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; OPN, osteopontin; UMOD, uromodulin; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule 1; TFF3, trefoil factor 3; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; α-GST, α-glutathione-S-transferase.

  • a Minimum values.