Table 1.

Comparison of demographic characteristics between AKI cases and controls

CharacteristicNo AKI (n=85)AKI (n=28)P Valuea
Infant
 Birth weight, g1000±304894±3680.13
 GA, wk28.0±226.4±20.2
 Apgar score at 1 mina4 (1, 6)4 (2, 6)0.8
 Apgar score at 5 mina7 (6, 8)7 (5, 7)0.1
 Length, cma35.5 (31.5, 38)32 (29.5, 37)0.02
 Head circumference, cma25 (23, 26.5)23.7 (21.5, 25.5)0.13
 Male, n (%) 45 (53)10 (36)0.8
 Race, n (%) 0.36
  White32 (38)14 (50)
  Black46 (54)14 (50)
  Other7 (8)0
Maternal, n (%)
 Prenatal care80 (94)26 (93)0.5
 Diabetes9 (11)3 (11)0.6
 Hypertension24 (28)9 (32)0.4
 Pre-eclampsiab32 (38)1 (4)0.001
 Smoking10 (12)4 (14)0.4
 Multiparity22 (26)14 (50)0.18
 Steroids78 (91)26 (93)0.3
 Indomethacin5 (7)5 (16)0.09
  Chorioamnionitis31 (36)15 (54)0.28
Interventions, n (%)
 Umbilical artery catheter29 (34)18(64)0.02
 Indomethacin31(36)15 (54)0.2
 Surfactants44 (51)19 (68)0.4
  • Values expressed with a plus/minus sign are the mean±SD. GA, gestational age.

  • a Non-normally distributed continuous data are expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles) and were evaluated using Mann–Whitney U test. Otherwise, normally distributed data were evaluated with t test.

  • b Fisher exact test was used when cell number was <5. Otherwise, chi-squared tests for categorical variables were used.