Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the Jackson Heart Study participants by diabetes and CKD status

VariablesAllNo DiabetesDiabetes
No CKDCKDNo CKDCKD
N, %32112297 (71.5)257 (8.0)456 (14.2)201 (6.3)
Age, yr54 (13)52 (13)59 (14)59 (11)62 (11)
Men1218 (38%)912 (40%)88 (34%)137 (30%)81 (40%)
Income
 Poor354 (13%)235 (12%)31 (15%)62 (17%)26 (17%)
 Lower middle611 (23%)402 (21%)66 (31%)92 (25%)51 (33%)
 Upper middle828 (31%)593 (31%)63 (30%)120 (32%)52 (33%)
 Affluent882 (33%)703 (36%)52 (25%)100 (27%)27 (17%)
Smoking
 Never2254 (71%)1645 (72%)170 (66%)300 (66%)139 (70%)
 Former555 (17%)354 (16%)50 (20%)113 (25%)38 (19%)
 Current375 (12%)277 (12%)36 (14%)41 (9%)21 (11%)
SBP, mmHg126 (18)124 (17)136 (21)127 (17)138 (22)
DBP, mmHg79 (10)80 (10)82 (13)77 (11)78 (11)
Use of antihypertensives1578 (60%)898 (50%)164 (74%)342 (79%)174 (92%)
Hypertension1940 (60%)1180 (51%)202 (79%)371 (81%)187 (93%)
Cholesterol, mg/dl198 (39)198 (39)200 (42)197 (38)202 (44)
LDL, mg/dl127 (36)127 (36)129 (37)123 (33)126 (41)
Use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors377 (12%)176 (8%)24 (9%)122 (27%)55 (27%)
Hyperlipidemia850 (27%)537 (23%)72 (28%)166 (36%)75 (37%)
Prevalent cardiovascular disease317 (10%)159 (7%)46 (18%)66 (15%)46 (23%)
Creatinine, mg/dl0.92 (0.32)0.89 (0.18)1.10 (0.71)0.85 (0.19)1.18 (0.61)
Cystatin C, mg/L0.74 (0.25)0.69 (0.12)0.96 (0.58)0.73 (0.15)1.00 (0.46)
eGFR (CKD-EPI), ml/min per 1.73 m2104 (21)108 (17)88 (30)103 (18)82 (32)
ACR, mg/g6 [4–13]5 [4–8]63 [35–169]8 [5–12]81 [41–359]
ACR≥30399 (12%)0 (0%)220 (86%)0 (0%)179 (89%)
  • Data are presented as numbers (%), means (SDs), or medians [interquartile ranges]. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or use of antihypertensive medications. Hyperlipidemia was defined as LDL≥160 or use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. eGFR was calculated using serum concentrations of creatinine and cystatin C measured at baseline using the 2012 CKD-EPI equation. To convert GFR in milliliters per minute to milliliters per second, multiply by 0.01667. To convert cholesterol in milligrams per deciliter to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0259. SBP, systolic BP; DBP, diastolic BP; HMG-CoA, hepatic hydroxymethyl glutaryl–CoA; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio.