Table 1.

Key priorities for research in urinary stone disease

TopicKey Research Priorities
EpidemiologyCauses of the increasing prevalence of USD in children; identifying modifiable risk factors for stone recurrence; determinants of the risk difference between men and women; causal mechanism underlying the association with metabolic syndrome; associations between USD and extrarenal disease (e.g., coronary heart and bone disease); updated estimates of stone recurrence rate
MicrobiotaInfluence of urinary microbiota; gastrointestinal microbiota, oxalate metabolism, and stone risk
ExposomeTemperature, climate, and USD risk; sunlight exposure and USD risk; mineral composition of water and USD risk; diet (including beverages) and USD risk; occupation
PreventionDietary interventions—secondary prevention (high-quality trials); water intake—primary and secondary prevention (high-quality trials); age–appropriate behavioral/social interventions to increase adherence; role of 24-h urine chemistry analysis in predicting recurrence risk after starting pharmacologic therapy
Care deliveryUreteral stent discomfort—mechanism and amelioration; patient-reported outcomes/patient-reported experience; optimal evaluation of a patient with acute stones (imaging and laboratory analysis); care coordination/multidisciplinary approach; cost drivers for USD burden of care
  • USD, urinary stone disease.