Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study Medicare–linked population ≥65 years old by albumin-to-creatinine ratio

Participant CharacteristicsAlbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio, mg/gP Value Trend
<30, n=722130–299, n=1271≥300, n=252
Age, yr
 <7037.728.331.8<0.001
 70–7949.151.448.80.31
 ≥8013.320.319.4<0.001
Women51.145.538.1<0.001
Black30.035.352.8<0.001
Geographic region
 Stroke Belt36.435.729.40.06
 Stroke Buckle22.922.026.20.79
 Other region40.742.344.40.11
Less than a high school education14.219.321.0<0.001
Household income <$20,00021.527.932.9<0.001
Current smoker8.513.115.1<0.001
Atrial fibrillation10.215.415.7<0.001
Coronary heart disease23.032.047.5<0.001
Stroke6.912.117.5<0.001
Diabetes mellitus18.536.054.4<0.001
Hypotension (systolic BP <110 mmHg)8.75.03.2<0.001
Use of antihypertensive medication54.365.281.0<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <18.51.42.51.20.06
 18.5–24.927.825.625.00.07
 ≥25.070.871.973.80.21
High–sensitivity C–reactive protein >3 mg/L2.65.99.9<0.001
Cognitive impairment9.512.117.5<0.001
Depressive symptoms8.310.511.50.002
Exhaustion11.818.720.2<0.001
Impaired mobility15.124.022.2<0.001
Self-reported fall in the prior year7.410.914.7<0.001
Use of psychoactive medication15.516.815.90.30
Polypharmacy (more than four medications)64.473.081.4<0.001
  • Numbers are percentages. The Stroke Buckle includes the coastal plain of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The Stroke Belt includes the remainder of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia and the states of Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Other region includes the 40 other contiguous United States states and Washington, DC.