Table 2.

Prevalence of geriatric impairments

Impairment and AuthorsTestPrevalence, %CutoffScaleTestElderly
Mood disturbance
 Diefenthaeler et al. (27)BDI55≥140–63S
 Lacson et al. (35,36)Depression score41>20–6P
 Genestier et al. (29)Depression ICD28Rx
 Chilcot et al. (23)BDI26≥160–63S
 Chilcot et al. (23)Depression ICD15R
 Boulware et al. (20)MHI SF-3624≤520–100P
 Soucie et al. (41)Depression ICD18R
 Thamer et al. (42)Depression ICD10Rx
 McClellan et al. (39)Depression ICD4R
Cognitive impairment
 Arai et al. (18)Dementia ICD41Rx
 Jassal et al. (31)Mental score36a; 7b<80–10Sx
 Genestier et al. (29)Dementia ICD13Rx
 Rakowski et al. (40)Dementia ICDc12R
 Thamer et al. (42)Dementia ICD6Rx
 Couchoud et al. (25)Behavioral disordersd5Rx
 Couchoud et al. (26)Behavioral disordersd4Rx
Immobility
 Arai et al. (18)Japanese criteria33≥31–8Sx
 Couchoud et al. (25)Assistance for transfers25Rx
 Couchoud et al. (25)Dependent for transfers7Rx
 Couchoud et al. (26)Assistance for transfers22Rx
 Couchoud et al. (26)Dependent for transfers8Rx
 Rakowski et al. (40)Unable to ambulate5R
 Rakowski et al. (40)Unable to transfer2R
ADLs
 Genestier et al. (29)ADL scale30≥70–12Sx
 Thamer et al. (42)ADL: dependent21Rx
Frailty
 Bao et al. (19)Modified Fried score73≥20–3P
 Johansen et al. (32)Modified Fried score68≥30–5P
 Alfaadhel et al. (17)Clinical frailty score26≥51–7P
Malnutrition
 Churchill et al. (43)SGA (mild to severe)55≤57–0S
 Chan et al. (21)SGA (idem)52B and CA–CS
 Chung et al. (24)SGA (idem)47≤57–0S
 Kim et al. (34)SGA (idem)42≤57–0Sx
 Honda et al. (30)SGA (idem)32≥21–4S
TestMild to Severe Prevalence CutoffSevere Prevalence CutoffScaleTestElderly
%Νο.%Νο.
Impaired performance
 Joly et al. (33)Karnofsky69≤7022≤4010–100Sx
 Chandna et al. (22)Karnofsky54≤7033≤4010–100C
 Churchill et al. (43)Karnofsky41≤7010–100S
 Soucie et al. (41)Karnofskye49<718<61–10S
 Mauri et al. (38)Karnofskye42<8013<7010–100C
 McClellan et al. (39)Karnofskye37<720<61–10S
 Kim et al. (34)Karnofsky24≤7010–100Sx
 Chilcot et al. (23)Karnofsky15<7010–100S
 Genestier et al. (29)AGGIR48≤428≤21–6S
 Doi et al. (28)WHO scale23≥30–4C
  • Prevalence of impairment. If necessary for comparison, the combined prevalence of two separate categories is shown (e.g., severely dependent and dependent for ADLs). Of all of the studies that applied a systematic assessment, the scale and cutoff values are reported. BDI, Beck Depression Inventory, S, applied by staff; P, patient self-report; ICD, International Statistical Classification of Diseases; R, review of medical chart; x, analysis includes elderly patients exclusively; MHI SF-36, Mental Health Inventory Short Form 36; ADL, activity of daily living; SGA, Subjective Global Assessment; A, well nourished; B, mild-moderately malnourished; C, severely malnourished; —, not mentioned; AGGIR, Autonomie Gérontologique Groupes Iso-Ressources; WHO, World Health Organization.

  • a Age ≥65 years old.

  • b Age <65 years old.

  • c Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, dementia not otherwise specified, or presenile dementia.

  • d Dementia, psychosis, or severe neurosis that may affect patient dependence or compliance with treatment.

  • e Modification of the Karnofsky Index (39).