Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study Medicare–linked population ≥65 years old by eGFR

Participant CharacteristicseGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2P Value Trend
≥60, n=714045–59, n=1064<45, n=540
Age, yr
 <7039.521.819.8<0.001
 70–7948.954.047.00.38
 ≥8011.624.333.2<0.001
Women49.252.255.70.001
Black31.131.236.10.04
Geographic region
 Stroke Belt36.435.933.00.14
 Stroke Buckle22.822.025.40.42
 Other region40.842.141.70.46
Less than a high school education14.318.520.7<0.001
Household income <$20,00021.824.132.5<0.001
Current smoker9.48.79.50.70
Atrial fibrillation10.113.919.4<0.001
Coronary heart disease22.932.139.2<0.001
Stroke7.011.513.1<0.001
Diabetes mellitus20.227.136.6<0.001
Hypotension (systolic BP <110 mmHg)8.17.48.50.94
Use of antihypertensive medication52.472.979.6<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <18.51.42.31.90.10
 18.5–24.927.926.123.70.02
 ≥25.070.771.674.40.07
High–sensitivity C–reactive protein >3 mg/L2.85.06.1<0.001
Cognitive impairment9.213.315.8<0.001
Depressive symptoms8.49.610.20.08
Exhaustion11.817.221.9<0.001
Impaired mobility15.121.228.0<0.001
Self-reported fall in the prior year7.69.711.1<0.001
Use of psychoactive medication14.620.121.7<0.001
Polypharmacy (more than four medications)63.076.887.4<0.001
  • Numbers are percentages. The Stroke Buckle includes the coastal plain of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The Stroke Belt includes the remainder of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia and the states of Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Other region includes the 40 other contiguous states in the United States and Washington, DC.