Table 1.

Basal clinical and biochemical characteristics of 543 patients with stage 5 CKD by the presence or absence of clinically overt cardiovascular disease

CharacteristicsNo CVD, n=344CVD, n=199P Valuea
Age, yr, n=54350 (31–67)62 (49–70)<0.001
Men, %, n=5435673<0.001
Diabetes mellitus, %, n=5432150<0.001
PEW (SGA>1), %, n=4962447<0.001
Smoking (yes/no), %, n=44142/5872/28<0.001
BMI,b kg/m2, n=54324.2 (19.5–30.8)24.6 (20.7–31.2)0.30
Handgrip, % of control, n=48397.6 (64.1–138.3)75.1 (50.1–112.6)<0.001
mBP,b mmHg, n=488109 (91–126)106 (88–127)0.18
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, n=4976.7 (4.0–10.5)7.2 (4.0–12.0)0.03
Medications
 ACE inhibitors or AngII receptor blockers, %, n=54363540.05
 HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), %, n=5431941<0.001
Markers of metabolism
 Creatinine, mg/dl, n=5438.5 (5.4–11.7)7.3 (4.3–11.1)<0.001
 fP-parathyroid hormone, pg/ml, n=530249 (52–643)207 (44–578)0.12
 fP-triglycerides, mg/dl, n=538159 (80–283)150 (80–310)0.79
 HbA1c,c mmol/mol, n=36636 (28–50)38 (31–51)0.05
 HOMA-IR Index,b,c n=3233.0 (1.6–7.9)3.1 (1.4–6.7)0.35
 U-albumin, mg/L per 24 h, n=3521646 (161–5986)2000 (168–5431)0.56
Circulating biomarkers, n=12
 Albumin, g/dl, n=5433.4 (2.7–4.0)3.3 (2.5–3.8)0.002
 Ferritin, ng/ml, n=531124 (39–309)121 (35–320)>0.99
 hsCRP, mg/L, n=5433.8 (0.6–23.0)8.1 (1.0–44.0)<0.001
 IGF-1, μg/ml, n=375194 (84–355)138 (68–265)<0.001
 IL-6, pg/ml, n=5025.0 (1.9–13.2)8.8 (3.4–22.4)<0.001
 Orosomucoid, g/L, n=3931.0 (0.7–1.6)1.1 (0.8–1.8)0.002
 sICAM-1, ng/ml, n=329234 (167–352)267 (195–403)<0.001
 sVCAM-1, ng/ml, n=3291226 (814–1800)1429 (893–2127)<0.001
 Platelet count, 103/μl, n=497245 (152–370)260 (156–400)0.13
 TNF, pg/ml, n=46111.8 (7.0–20.4)12.7 (7.5–25.3)0.03
 Troponin T, μg/L, n=3940.03 (0.01–0.17)0.07 (0.02–0.34)<0.001
 White blood cells, 103/μl, n=5217.3 (4.9–11.2)8.1 (5.4–12.0)0.002
  • Data are presented as medians (range of 10th to 90th percentiles) or percentages. CVD, cardiovascular disease; PEW, protein energy wasting; SGA, subjective global assessment of nutritional status; BMI, body mass index; mBP, mean arterial BP; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; AngII, Angiotensin II; HMG-CoA, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA; fP, fasting plasma; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; U-albumin, urine albumin; hsCRP, high–sensitivity C–reactive protein; sICAM-1, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule; sVCAM-1, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1.

  • a For continuous variables, we used nonparametric Wilcoxon tests, and for nominal variables, we used Fischer exact tests.

  • b Formulas: BMI (weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters), HOMA-IR (fasting serum insulin [microunits per milliliter] × fasting plasma glucose [micromoles per liter]/22.5), and mBP (diastolic pressure + [systolic BP − diastolic BP]/3).

  • c Only in patients with no diabetes.