Table 2.

Relationship of annual absolute decline in eGFR with participant characteristics at baseline, adjusted for age and sex (n=550)

VariableeGFR (CKD-EPI)<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (n=85)eGFR (CKD-EPI) 60–89 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (n=125)eGFR (CKD-EPI)≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (n=340)
Baseline factor
 Age (per 5 yr)0.95 (−−0.40 to 1.45)−0.315 (−0.86 to 0.20)−0.14 (−0.38 to 0.09)
 Female−2.94 (−5.68 to −0.208)1.08 (−1.75 to 3.91)1.31 (0.091–2.52)
 Weight (per 5 kg)0.09 (−0.24 to 0.42)0.15 (−0.20 to 0.49)−0.0005 (−0.145 to 0.13)
 BMI (kg/m2)0.027 (−0.16 to 0.22)0.099 (−0.10 to 0.30)−0.008 (−0.075 to 0.092)
 Waist circumference (2 cm)0.00 (−0.45 to 0.45)0.095 (−0.36 to 0.55)0.011 (−018 to 0.20)
 Waist-to-hip ratio (0.1 unit)−1.59 (−3.46 to 0.29)−0.90 (−2.63 to 0.84)0.40 (−0.32 to 1.13)
 Diabetes−3.74 (−6.55 to −0.93)0.39 (−2.55 to 3.33)−0.51 (−1.81 to 0.80)
 Currently smoking−2.48 (−6.02 to 1.06)2.16 (−1.28 to 5.59)0.22 (−0.95 to 1.40)
 Systolic BP (per 5 mmHg)−0.18 (−0.55 to 0.21)−0.27 (−0.63 to 0.10)0.05 (−0.15 to 0.25)
 Diastolic BP (per 5 mmHg)0.07 (−0.67 to 0.81)−0.021 (−0.9 to 0.47)0.055 (−0.24 to 0.35)
 HbA1c
  Measured as mmol/mol−0.021 (−0.091 to 0.049)−0.028 (−0.11 to 0.048)−0.022 (−0.053 to 0.008)
  Measured as percentage−0.23 (−1.00 to 0.53)−0.31 (−1.16 to 0.54)−0.24 (−0.58 to 0.094)
 Cholesterol
  Per 5 mg/dl0.093 (−0.075 to 0.26)0.17 (−0.025 to 0.36)0.065 (−0.005 to 0.14)
  Measured as mmol/L0.72 (−0.57 to 2.01)1.28 (−0.20 to 2.75)0.51 (−0.043 to 1.06)
 HDL cholesterol
  Measured per 5 mg/dl−0.08 (−0.70 to 0.54)0.16 (−0.48 to 0.79)−0.0085 (−0.23 to 0.21)
  Measured as mmol/L−0.63 (−5.40 to 4.14)1.19 (−3.69 to 6.07)−0.064 (−1.76 to 1.64)
 Cholesterol-to-HDL ratio0.52 (−0.44 to 1.47)0.38 (−0.64 to 1.40)0.22 (−0.17 to 0.60)
 CKD-EPI eGFR (per 5 ml/min per 1.73 m2)0.33 (−0.16 to 0.81)−0.05 (−0.99 to 0.9)−0.65 (−0.95 to −0.34)
 CRP (log mg/L)0.36(−0.94 to 1.66)−1.50 (−2.95 to −0.054)0.48 (−0.13 to 1.08)
 Bilirubin
  Measured as mg/dl3.32 (−4.73 to 11.38)−1.69 (−8.09 to 4.71)−3.46 (−5.40 to −1.51)
  Measured as μmol/L0.19 (−0.27 to 0.66)−0.10 (−0.47 to 0.28)−0.20 (−0.32 to −0.089)
 Urine ACR (log mg/g)−1.03 (−1.76 to −0.31)−1.03 (−1.71 to −0.36)−0.53 (−0.89 to −0.18)
ACR categories
 A2 versus A1−3.95 (−9.17 to 1.27)0.63 (−2.89 to 4.14)−0.22 (−1.73 to 1.30)
 A3 versus A1−6.02 (−10.74 to −1.31)−5.86 (−9.32 to −2.39)−4.20 (−6.09 to −2.31)
ACE inhibitor or ARB use−1.66 (−4.57 to 1.24)−2.28 (−5.18 to 0.63)−1.01 (−2.61 to 0.59)
Rent or other tenure versus owning/being purchased−6.46 (−12.1 to −0.80)−0.77 (−4.23 to 2.67)0.014 (−1.80 to 1.82)
Highest level of school completed
 Never went to school versus year 12/equivalent1.93 (−1.63 to 5.48)−1.28 (−4.59 to 2.02)1.13 (−0.27 to 2.53)
 Less than year 10 versus year 12/equivalent2.01 (−1.95 to 5.97)−0.78 (−5.43 to 3.87)0.91 (−0.71 to 2.54)
  • Linear regression models, adjusted for age and sex. Values are expressed as ml/min per 1.73 m2, with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. CKD-EPI, CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; CRP, C-reactive protein; ACR, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio; A2, albuminuria, 27–265 mg/g (3–30 mg/mmol); A1, albuminuria<27 mg/g (3 mg/mmol); A3, albuminuria>265 mg/g (30 mg/mmol); ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blockade.