Table 4.

Cox regression model of combined renal endpoint

Baseline FactorHR (95% CI)
Crude (66 Events/n=550aAdjusted for Age and Sex (66 Events/n=550)aAdjusted for Age, Sex, and ACR (60 Events/n=520)b
Age (per 5 r)0.97 (0.88–1.06)
Female1.05 (0.64–1.75)
Weight (5 kg)0.95 (0.90–1.05)0.95 (0.91–1.06)1.00 (0.90–1.05)
BMI (kg/m2)0.98 (0.94–1.01)0.98 (0.95–1.02)0.97 (0.94–1.01)
Waist circumference (2 cm)1.00 (0.96–1.02)1.00 (0.96–1.02)1.00 (0.96–1.02)
Waist-to-hip ratio (0.1 unit)1.21 (0.90–1.63)1.36 (0.99–1.87)1.18 (0.85–1.65)
Diabetes2.27 (1.32–3.92)2.56 (1.44–4.54)1.41 (0.77–2.59b
Currently smoking1.19 (0.66–2.13)1.20 (0.66–2.18)0.85 (0.45–1.63)
Systolic BP (per 5 mmHg)1.05 (1.00–1.16)1.10 (1.00–1.16)0.95 (0.90–1.05)
Diastolic BP (per 5 mmHg)1.10 (1.00–1.22)1.10 (1.00–1.28)1.00 (0.90–1.16)
HbA1c
 Measured as mmol/mol (log)1.82 (0.92–3.57)1.99 (1.00–3.96)1.00 (0.43–2.34)
 Measured as percentage1.09 (0.98–1.221.10 (0.98–1.23)1.01 (0.87–1.17)
Cholesterol
 Measured as mmol/L0.97 (0.75–1.24)0.95 (0.73–1.23)0.95 (0.70–1.30)
 Measured per 5 mg/dl0.99 (0.96–1.03)0.99 (0.96–1.03)0.99 (0.95–1.03)
HDL cholesterol
 Measured as mmol/L0.87 (0.38–1.95)0.83 (0.37–1.88)0.79 (0.33–1.89)
 Measured per 5 mg/dl0.98 (0.88–1.09)0.98 (0.88–1.09)0.97 (0.87–1.09)
Cholesterol-to-HDL ratio1.04 (0.88–1.23)1.04 (0.88–1.24)1.05 (0.87–1.27)
Measured GFR (per 5 ml/min per 1.73 m2 higher)0.80 (0.73–0.87)0.78 (0.71–0.86)0.82 (0.75–0.91)
CRP (mg/L)1.22 (1.03–1.46)1.24 (1.04–1.49)1.22 (1.01–1.47)
Urine ACR (log 2 mg/g)c1.51 (1.34–1.69)1.57 (1.38–1.78)
ACR categoriesc
 A2 versus A16.22 (1.69–22.92)5.89 (1.59–21.81)
 A3 versus A121.92 (6.45–74.45)22.20 (6.53–75.52)
Taking ACE inhibitor or ARB versus not taking ACE inhibitor or ARB2.49 (1.40–4.42)2.90 (1.58–5.34)1.83 (1.00–3.38)
Highest level of school completed
 Less than year 10/never went to school versus year 12/equivalent1.56 (0.74–3.28)1.84 (0.85–3.98)1.02 (0.45–2.31)
 Year 10/equivalent versus year 12/equivalent1.06 (0.47–2.39)1.11 (0.49–2.53)0.66 (0.27–1.62)
  • All models are stratified by baseline eGFR category. HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; CRP, C-reactive protein; A2, albuminuria 27–265 mg/g (3–30 mg/mmol); A1, albuminuria<27 mg/g (3 mg/mmol); A3, albuminuria>265 mg/g (30 mg/mmol); ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockade.

  • a Events versus all participants in the model.

  • b Analyses presented for each variable: unadjusted (crude); adjusted for age and sex; adjusted for age, sex, and ACR.

  • c Fewer participants are included for ACR and ACR categories because of missing data for ACR.