Table 4.

Baseline characteristics of enrolled patients

CharacteristicsAll Patients (n=66)Patients in United States (n=43)Patients in India (n=23)P Value
Mean age at implant±SD, yr (n/N)56.3±12.2 (66/66)55.8±11.6 (43/43)57.2±13.5 (23/23)0.66
Male sex69.7 (46/66)62.8 (27/43)82.6 (19/23)0.16
Race<0.001
 Asian34.8 (23/66)0.0 (0/43)100.0 (23/23)
 Black53.0 (35/66)81.4 (35/43)0.0 (0/23)
 Other1.5 (1/66)2.3 (1/43)0.0 (0/23)
 White10.6 (7/66)16.3 (7/43)0.0 (0/23)
Hispanic ethnicity0.0 (0/66)0.0 (0/43)0.0 (0/23)
Cause of ESRD
 Diabetes42.4 (28/66)34.9 (15/43)56.5 (13/23)0.01
 GN7.6 (5/66)7.0 (3/43)8.7 (2/23)
 Hypertension37.9 (25/66)51.2 (22/43)13.0 (3/23)
 Other12.1 (8/66)7.0 (3/43)21.7 (5/23)
Median ESRD vintage (IQR), yr (n/N)2.4 (1.2–5.3) (65/66)3.5 (1.2–5.7) (42/43)2.2 (1.1–3.0) (23/23)<0.001
Prior kidney transplant13.6 (9/66)11.6 (5/43)17.4 (4/23)0.71
Previous peritoneal dialysis10.6 (7/66)14.0 (6/43)4.3 (1/23)0.41
Current vascular access
 AV fistula70.8 (46/65)59.5 (25/42)91.3 (21/23)0.01
 AV graft24.6 (16/65)35.7 (15/42)4.3 (1/23)
 Catheter4.6 (3/65)4.8 (2/42)4.3 (1/23)
Diabetes0.61
 None36.4 (24/66)37.2 (16/43)34.8 (8/23)
 Type 14.5 (3/66)7.0 (3/43)0.0 (0/23)
 Type 259.1 (39/66)55.8 (24/43)65.2 (15/23)
Mean diabetes duration±SD, yr (n/N)17.9±12.8 (37/66)21.0±13.6 (24/43)12.1±9.0 (13/23)0.04
Hyperlipidemia60.6 (40/66)74.4 (32/43)34.8 (8/23)0.003
Hypertension84.8 (56/66)97.7 (42/43)60.9 (14/23)<0.001
Ischemic heart disease48.5 (32/66)51.2 (22/43)43.5 (10/23)0.61
Congestive heart failure25.8 (17/66)39.5 (17/43)0.0 (0/23)<0.001
Coronary artery bypass surgery13.6 (9/66)11.6 (5/43)17.4 (4/23)0.71
History of arrhythmia31.8 (21/66)48.8 (21/43)0.0 (0/23)<0.001
Atrial fibrillation10.6 (7/66)16.3 (7/43)0.0 (0/23)0.09
Smoking0.02
 Current7.6 (5/66)11.6 (5/43)0.0 (0/23)
 Never69.7 (46/66)58.1 (25/43)91.3 (21/23)
 Past22.7 (15/66)30.2 (13/43)8.7 (2/23)
Mean weight±SD, kg (n/N)86.7±28.8 (66/66)97.6±28.7 (43/43)66.5±14.9 (23/23)<0.001
Body mass index ≥40 kg/m29.1 (6/66)14.0 (6/43)0.0 (0/23)0.08
Mean systolic BP±SD, mmHg (n/N)140.8±23.4 (66/66)139.6±25.8 (43/43)143.0±18.2 (23/23)0.57
Mean diastolic BP±SD, mmHg (n/N)76.8±12.9 (66/66)75.5±15.1 (43/43)79.1±6.7 (23/23)0.18
Medications
 Nonaspirin anticoagulants or anti platelet agents15 (10/66)16 (7/43)13 (3/23)1.00
 β-Blockers55 (36/66)58 (25/43)48 (11/23)0.45
 Calcium channel blockers59 (39/66)51 (22/43)74 (17/23)0.11
 ACEI or ARB33 (22/66)47 (20/43)9 (2/23)0.002
 Statin48 (32/66)47 (20/43)52 (12/23)0.80
 Aspirin45 (30/66)49 (21/43)39 (9/23)0.60
  • Unless otherwise noted, values are the number/number of patients (percentage). Categorical P value is based on a two-sided Fisher exact test. Continuous P value is based on an unpaired t test. IQR, interquartile range; AV, arteriovenous; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blocker.