Table 2.

Unadjusted and adjusted determinants of AKI

CharacteristicsUnadjusted Odds Ratio 95% CI P valueAdjusted Odds Ratioa 95% CI P value
Age (per 5 years)1.071.03
1.06 to 1.091.02 to 1.05
<0.001<0.001
Diabetes1.491.20
1.35 to 1.661.07 to 1.33
<0.0010.002
Hypertension1.321.33
1.20 to 1.451.19–1.48
<0.001<0.001
SOFA (1 point)1.291.33
1.27 to 1.321.29 to 1.36
<0.0010.001
Baseline ACE-I1.271.09
1.14 to 1.400.96 to 1.21
<0.0010.19
Baseline diuretic use1.601.07
1.45 to 1.700.95 to 1.18
<0.0010.40
Pulmonary edema1.541.08
1.34 to 1.680.95 to 1.23
<0.0010.22
Peripheral edema1.881.30
1.69 to 2.091.15 to 1.46
<0.001<0.001
  • 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; ACE-I, angiotensin inhibitor converting enzyme-inhibitor.

  • a Adjusted for age, gender, race, intensive care unit type, SOFA, history of diabetes, congestive heart failure, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, and 24 additional Elixhauser comorbidities, admission vitals (systolic and diastolic BP, heart rate, temperature), admission creatinine, preillness medication usage (ACE-I, angiotensin receptor blocker, statin, calcium channel blocker, and diuretics), and pulmonary edema.