Table 2.

Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models of the association of frailty with mortality

Frailty DefinitionDeaths per 1000 person-yr, 106 Total EventsUnivariate, n=762Model 1,an=732Model 2,bn=728Harrell c Statisticc
Hazard Ratio (95% CI)P ValueHazard Ratio (95% CI)P ValueHazard Ratio (95% CI)P Value
Single definitions in individual models
 Performance based
  No50.21.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
  Yes137.82.74 (1.87 to 4.02)<0.0012.16 (1.41 to 3.29)<0.0011.78 (1.15 to 2.80)<0.010.73
 Self–reported function based
  No46.21.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
  Yes104.22.25 (1.49 to 3.40)<0.0011.93 (1.24 to 3.00)0.0041.66 (1.06 to 2.60)0.020.72
Performance and self–reported physical function in a single model
 Not frail by self-reported function46.21.0 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 Frail by self-reported function only64.51.40 (0.82 to 2.38)0.221.41 (0.81 to 2.45)0.231.33 (0.76 to 2.32)0.310.73
 Frail by both definitions145.33.15 (2.03 to 4.89)<0.0012.46 (1.51 to 4.01)<0.0011.95 (1.19 to 3.20)<0.01
  • 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Primary analysis adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes, heart failure, and coronary artery disease.

  • b Model 2 also adjusted for serum albumin and C–reactive protein concentrations and dialysis via central venous catheter.

  • c For the fully adjusted models.