Table 1.

Baseline characteristics stratified by peripheral edema

CharacteristicsWith Peripheral Edema n=2338Without Peripheral Edema n=10,440P value
Demographics
 Age, mean (SD), years68.9 (15.1)63.2 (17.8)<0.001
 Female, n (%)1101 (47.0)4416 (42.3)0.12
 White1747 (74.7)7515 (71.9)<0.001
 Black176 (7.5)787 (7.5)
 Hispanic52 (2.2)330 (3.2)
 Asian34 (1.5)262 (2.5)
 Other40 (1.7)258 (2.5)
 Unknown289 (12.3)1288 (12.3)
Cardiac care unit559 (23.9)2556 (24.5)<0.01
Medical care unit921 (39.3)3755 (36.0)
Surgical care unit858 (36.7)4129 (40.0)
Past medical history, n (%)
 Diabetes902 (38.6)2791 (26.7)<0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease181 (7.8)842 (8.5)0.58
 Hypertension734 (31.4)3790 (36.3)<0.001
 Chronic pulmonary disease518 (22.7)1726 (16.5)<0.001
 Congestive heart failure963 (41.2)2113 (20.3)<0.001
Prior medication use, n (%)
 Diuretic1126 (48.2)2694 (25.8)<0.001
 ACE-I684 (29.0)2613 (25.1)<0.001
 ARB234 (10.1)707 (6.8)<0.001
 Calcium channel blocker490 (20.9)1648 (15.7)<0.001
Admission characteristics
 SOFA3.4 (2.5)2.4 (2.1)<0.001
 Systolic BP (mmHg)121.3 (25.1)125.7 (24.7)<0.001
 Diastolic BP (mmHg)61.1 (16.3)64.2 (15.9)<0.001
 Temperature (°C)36.5 (1.7)36.5 (1.6)0.76
 Creatinine (mg/dl)1.6 (1.4)1.3 (1.3)<0.001
 eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m21300 (55.6)3604 (34.5)<0.001
  • Mean (SD) for continuous variables, and within column number (%) provided. ACE-I, angiotensin inhibitor converting enzyme-inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. eGFR determined using the Modified Diet Renal Disease equation.