Table 2.

Uremic toxins serum concentrations (micromoles per liter) at the end of synbiotic and placebo intervention

Uremic toxinAll Completers (n=31)Antibiotic-Free Completers (n=21)
SynbioticsPlaceboTreatment Effecta (95% CI)P ValueSynbioticsPlaceboTreatment Effecta (95% CI)P Value
Total IS15 (10–26)16 (12–27)−2 (−5 to 1)0.1215 (11–26)20 (12–32)−5 (−8 to −1)0.03
Total PCS75 (36–101)93 (54–136)−14 (−27 to −2)0.0368 (34–97)91 (54–130)−25 (−38 to −12)0.001
Free IS0.6 (0.4–0.8)0.5 (0.4–1.0)−0.08 (−0.20 to 0.04)0.200.5 (0.4–0.7)0.5 (0.4–1.0)−0.18 (−0.32 to −0.04)0.02
Free PCS2.2 (0.7–2.8)2.4 (1.1–3.4)−0.23 (−0.70 to 0.25)0.342.0 (0.6–2.4)2.4 (1.1–3.1)−0.70 (−1.10 to −0.30)0.01
  • Data are presented as medians (interquartile ranges). 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; IS, indoxyl sulfate; PCS, p-cresyl sulfate.

  • a Treatment effect derived from regression modeling accounting for period effect.