Table 2.

Group differences between patients with CKD and control participants in z-scores for accuracy and speed in each Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery subtest, adjusted for race, sex, and maternal education

Neurobehavioral Function and DomainTest NameGroup Difference in Accuracy z-Scoresa (CKD−Control), Estimate (95% CI)P ValueGroup Difference in Speed z-Scoresa (CKD−Control), Estimate (95% CI)P Value
Executive control
 Abstraction/mental flexibilityPenn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET)−0.20 (−0.51 to 0.12)0.220.27 (−0.12 to 0.66)0.17
 AttentionPenn Continuous Performance Test (PCPT)−0.35 (−0.67 to −0.03)0.030.44 (0.04 to 0.83)0.03
 Working memoryShort Letter N-Back Test (SLNB)−0.19 (−0.61 to 0.24)0.390.16 (−0.25 to 0.58)0.44
Episodic memory
 Verbal memoryPenn Word Memory (CPW)−0.25 (−0.65 to 0.15)0.230.13 (−0.25 to 0.50)0.52
 Facial memoryPenn Face Memory (CPF)−0.32 (−0.68 to 0.04)0.080.28 (−0.14 to 0.69)0.20
 Spatial memoryVisual Object Learning Test (VOLT)−0.35 (−0.72 to 0.01)0.060.37 (−0.02 to 0.76)0.06
Complex cognition
 Verbal reasoningPenn Verbal Reasoning Test (PVRT)−0.53 (−0.87 to −0.19)0.0020.08 (−0.29 to 0.45)0.66
 Nonverbal reasoningPenn Matrix Reasoning Test (PMAT)−0.52 (−0.83 to −0.22)0.0010.27 (−0.07 to 0.61)0.12
 Spatial processingPenn Line Orientation Test (PLOT)−0.64 (−0.99 to −0.29)<0.001−0.05 (−0.45 to 0.35)0.81
Social cognition
 Emotion identificationPenn Emotion Identification Test (ER40)−0.28 (−0.64 to 0.09)0.130.01 (−0.43 to 0.45)0.97
 Emotion differentiationPenn Emotion Differentiation Test (MEDF)−0.22 (−0.59 to 0.14)0.230.13 (−0.19 to 0.45)0.43
 Age differentiationPenn Age Differentiation Test (ADT)−0.24 (−0.61 to 0.14)0.210.16 (−0.18 to 0.50)0.35
  • 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; PCET, Penn Conditional Exclusion Test; PCPT, Penn Continuous Performance Test; SLNB, Short Letter N-Back Test; CPW, Penn Word Memory; CPF, Penn Face Memory; VOLT, Visual Object Learning Test; PVRT, Penn Verbal Reasoning Test; PMAT, Penn Matrix Reasoning Test; PLOT, Penn Line Orientation Test; ER40, Penn Emotion Identification Test; MEDF, Penn Emotion Differentiation Test; ADT, Age Differentiation Test.

  • a Adjusted for race, sex, and maternal education.