Table 2.

Comparison of traditional markers of kidney injury and cardiac data at long-term follow-up

VariableAKI-Positive Patients (n=33)AKI-Negative Patients (n=18)P Value
Age at evaluation, yr7.9 (6.9, 8.7)8.25 (7.2, 9.6)0.36
Time since CPB, yr6.9±17.13±0.960.43
Serum creatinine, mg/dl0.47 (0.41, 0.5); n=240.50 (0.44, 0.62); n=120.26
eGFR (Schwartz), ml/min per 1.73 m2108.82±20.76105.1±17.380.62
Patients with eGFR<90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, n (%)3 (14.3); n=213 (27); n=110.39
  Patients with eGFR>150 ml/min per 1.73 m2, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)>0.99
 eGFR (cystatin C), ml/min per 1.73 m2120 (102, 126); n=21118 (113, 118); n=90.39
 eGFR (CKiD), ml/min per 1.73 m2 97.89±11.66; n=1797.89±11.66; n=80.65
Height Z-scores−0.81±0.93; n=28−0.38±1.35; n=170.28
BP
 SBP percentile52.23±28.32; n=2861.36±24.37; n=170.26
 DBP percentile51.18±22.72; n=2859.68±22.7; n=170.21
 Patients with SBP>90th percentile, n/n3/282/17>0.99
 Patients with DBP>90th percentile, n/n1/280/17>0.99
Patients taking any antihypertensive medications, n (%)7 (21.2)2 (11)0.46
Total no. of antihypertensive medications prescribed per patient, n
 162
 210
Class of antihypertensive medication, n (%)
 ACE inhibitor62
β-blocker10
 Diuretic10
Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, mg/mg0.19±0.08; n=230.18±0.08; n=110.77
Urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio, μg/mg13.5 (6.9, 15.7); n=2611.67 (6.18, 28.49); n=130.89
Patients with urine microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 μg/mg, n (%)1 (3.9)3 (23)0.27
Echocardiogram findings
RV diastolic dimension, cm1.94 (1.63, 2.28); n=101.7 (1.4, 2.02); n=30.45
 LV diastolic dimension, cm3.54 (3.45, 3.9); n=103.88 (3.86, 4.15); n=50.36
 LV diastolic wall thickness, cm0.6 (0.56, 0.65); n=130.61 (0.53, 0.62); n=50.73
 LV fractional shortening,% 37.68 (36.46, 40.06); n=1234.95 (34.79, 40.24); n=50.71
 LV mass/height2.734 (29.81, 39.91); n=1233.62 (31.7, 39.25); n=50.79
Electrocardiogram findings, n/n (%)
 RVH4/23 (17.4)2/12 (16.7)>0.99
 LVH1/23 (4.35)0/12 (0)>0.99
Patients with ≥1 serum creatinine measurement at any time from CPB exposure to long-term follow-up assessment, n (%)15/33 (45)8/18 (44)>0.99
Patients requiring repeat hospitalization since time of original surgery, n (%)29/33 (88)13/18 (72)0.25
  • Unless otherwise noted, values are the median (interquartile range). Values expressed with a plus/minus sign are the mean±SD. Level of significance: P<0.05. CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass; CKiD, Chronic Kidney Disease in Children; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; RV, right ventricular; LV, left ventricular; RVH, right ventricular hypertrophy; LVH, left ventricular hypertrophy.