Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of all patients with CKD by serum potassium

CharacteristicSerum K+ Level (n=55,266)Omnibus P Value
<3.5 mEq/L (n=897)3.5–3.9 mEq/L
(n=5664)4.0–4.4 mEq/L (n=18,712)4.5–4.9 mEq/L (n=18,947)5.0–5.4 mEq/L (n=8270)5.5–5.9 mEq/L (n=2187)≥6.0 mEq/L (n=589)
Mean age ±SD (yr)72.2±11.973.8±11.574.6±11.374.8±11.174.7±11.374.3±11.573.9±12.3<0.001
Race <0.001
 American Indian/Alaskan Native1 (0.1)9 (0.2)40 (0.2)34 (0.2)29 (0.4)3 (0.1)3 (0.5)
 Asian31 (3.5)194 (3.4)667 (3.6)573 (3.0)246 (3.0)65 (3.0)17 (2.9)
 Black86 (9.6)464 (8.2)994 (5.3)702 (3.7)266 (3.2)50 (2.3)14 (2.4)
 Declined to state62 (6.9)461 (8.1)1403 (7.5)1494 (7.89)634 (7.67)200 (9.1)64 (10.9)
 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander5 (0.6)20 (0.4)61 (0.3)55 (0.3)21 (0.3)12 (0.6)1 (0.2)
 Unknown517 (57.6)3326 (58.7)11,566 (61.8)11,818 (62.4)5179 (62.6)1368 (62.6)368 (62.5)
 White195 (21.7)1190 (21.0)3981 (21.3)4271 (22.5)1895 (22.9)489 (22.4)122 (20.7)
Women 597 (66.6)3830 (67.6)11,632 (62.2)10,590 (55.9)4319 (52.2)1116 (51.0)269 (45.7)<0.001
Diabetes 183 (20.4)1252 (22.1)4217 (22.5)5003 (26.4)2413 (29.2)675 (30.9)203 (34.5)<0.001
CHF 101 (11.3)504 (8.9)1379 (7.4)1469 (7.8)690 (8.3)193 (8.8)68 (11.5)<0.001
CAD 98 (10.9)697 (12.3)2274 (12.2)2531 (13.4)1147 (13.9)329 (15.0)92 (15.6)<0.001
CVA 62 (6.9)369 (6.5)1237 (6.6)1178 (6.2)502 (6.1)151 (6.9)46 (7.8)0.29
Loop diuretics 121 (13.5)487 (8.6)1266 (6.8)1330 (7.0)581 (7.0)182 (8.3)64 (10.9)<0.001
Thiazide diuretics 292 (32.6)1514 (26.7)3001 (16.0)2066 (10.9)779 (9.4)208 (9.5)64 (10.9)<0.001
β-blockers 128 (14.3)1002 (17.7)2934 (15.7)2952 (15.6)1284 (15.5)355 (16.3)90 (15.3)0.005
Nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers 61 (6.8)324 (5.7)875 (4.7)730 (3.9)292 (3.5)78 (3.6)25 (4.2)<0.001
RAAS blockers 202 (22.5)1405 (24.8)5103 (27.3)5721 (30.2)2631 (31.8)754 (34.5)220 (37.4)<0.001
  • Unless otherwise noted, values are the number (percentage) of patients. K+, potassium; CHF, congestive heart failure; CAD, coronary artery disease; CVA, cerebrovascular disease; RAAS, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system;.