Table 2.

Aortic stiffness, nitric oxide species, markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, and chemistry panel

ParametersCocoa FlavanolPlaceboP Value
Day 0Day 30Day 0Day 30
Aortic stiffness
 PWV (m/s)11.9±1.111.0±0.912.4±0.912.0±1.10.32
 Carotid IMT (mm)0.81±0.020.79±0.020.81±0.020.81±0.020.28
Nitric oxide interleukin
 Nitrite (µM)0.31±0.050.33±0.050.34±0.050.35±0.090.49
 Nitrate (µM)57.5±4.971.7±11.884.5±11.876.8±8.00.12
Oxidative stress
 OxLDL (units per liter)50.9±3.651.2±3.651.1±2.950.1±1.80.93
Inflammation
 AGE CML (ng/ml)3240±5613438±3102503±3253189±3240.35
 CRP (mg/dl)0.6±0.10.7±0.20.9±0.40.8±0.50.77
 IL-6 (pg/ml)2.6±0.43.3±0.43.6±0.43.3±0.60.25
Myocardial ischemia
 Hs-troponin (ng/ml)62.6±9.466.6±10.361.5±8.062.9±8.10.93
Chemistry panel
 Creatinine (mg/dl)8.3±0.58.4±0.67.5±0.57.8±0.50.42
 Cystatin C (mg/dl)5.2±0.35.3±0.25.6±0.25.3±0.20.86
 Potassium (mEq/L)5.1±0.25.1±0.24.9±0.25.0±0.10.06
 Homocysteine (mg/dl)44.6±4.748.0±4.436.2±1.739.6±2.10.53
 Total protein (mg/dl)7.0±0.16.9±0.16.9±0.26.9±0.10.65
 Phosphate (mg/dl)5.3±0.35.3±0.35.0±0.35.0±0.30.34
  • Unpaired t test was used for comparing the groups on change from baseline. PWV, pulse wave velocity; IMT, intima-media thickness; OxLDL, oxidized LDL; AGE CML, carboxymethyl lysine advanced glycation end products; CRP, C-reactive protein; Hs-troponin, high-sensitivity troponin.