Table 3.

Comparisons of urinary biomarkers in AKI-positive and AKI-negative patients at long-term follow-up from cardiopulmonary bypass surgery versus healthy controls

VariableA: AKI-Positive Patients (n=30)B: AKI-Negative Patients (n=18)C: Healthy Controls (n=90)D: AKI-Negative Patients and Healthy Controls (n=108)P Value (Columns A, B, and C)aP Value (Column A versus Column B) bP Value (Column A versus Column D)bP Value (Column B versus Column C)b
Urine NGAL/Cr, ng/mg7.01 (4.03, 9.46)15.65 (9.598, 19.213)4.81 (2.61, 11.63)5.51 (2.96, 15.652)0.010.010.930.01
Urine IL-18/Cr, pg/mg48.496 (39.05, 70.84)20.27 (16.08, 37.16)20.68 (14.6, 29.32)20.492 (14.917, 29.864)<0.001 0.01<0.0010.43
Urine KIM-1/Cr, pg/mg619.02 (437.57, 728.88)352.407 (231.574, 532.432)378.408 (273.164, 545.486)378.41 (262.24, 537.55)0.010.030.0020.63
Urine L-FABP/Cr, ng/mg5.88 (4.74, 7.44) n=293.9 (2.81, 5.4)3.07 (1.9, 4.87)3.18 (1.9, 5.11)<0.0010.001<0.0010.40
  • Values are expressed as the median (interquartile range). NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; Cr, creatinine; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1; L-FABP, liver fatty acid–binding protein.

  • a P=0.05.

  • b P=0.02 (0.05/n−1; n=4).