Table 2.

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of 599 children by scarring status

CharacteristicsNo Scarring (n=541)Any Scarring (n=58)P ValueaNew Scarring (n=40)P Valueb
Age
 Median (25th, 75th quartiles), mo11 (5, 29)26 (9, 45)0.0126 (10, 44)0.02
 Group<0.001<0.001
   2–11 mo274 (51)19 (33)13 (33)
   12–23 mo97 (18)9 (16)6 (15)
   24–35 mo75 (14)4 (7)3 (8)
   36–72 mo95 (18)26 (45)18 (45)
Sex1.000.70
 Female497 (92)54 (93)39 (98)
 Male circumcised16 (3)1 (2)0 (0)
 Male uncircumcised28 (5)3 (5)1 (3)
Race/ethnicityc0.700.50
 White426 (80)49 (84)34 (85)
 Black25 (5)1 (2)0 (0)
 Multiracial37 (7)3 (5)2 (5)
 Other43 (8)5 (9)4 (10)
 Hispanicc62 (12)13 (22)0.029 (23)0.04
Maternal level of education0.950.99
 High school graduate or lower141 (26)15 (26)11 (28)
 Some college education or 2-yr degree138 (26)16 (28)10 (25)
 College graduate or higher257 (48)27 (47)19 (48)
Health insurance0.170.05
 Commercial396 (74)38 (66)24 (60)
 Publicd139 (26)20 (34)16 (40)
Index UTI
 First episode500 (92)47 (81)0.00333 (83)0.03
 Second episode41 (8)11 (19)7 (18)
Type of index UTI0.420.74
 Only febrile 38–39°C44 (8)3 (5)2 (5)
 Only febrile ≥39°C135 (25)11 (19)8 (20)
 Symptomatic only78 (14)7 (12)6 (15)
 Febrile and symptomatic284 (52)37 (64)24 (60)
Index UTI organism0.110.35
 Escherichia coli485 (90)48 (83)34 (85)
 Other56 (10)10 (17)6 (15)
Index infection resistant to TMP-SMZe0.220.12
 Resistant110 (22)8 (15)4 (11)
 Sensitive399 (78)47 (85)33 (89)
Toilet trained109 (20)24 (41)<0.00115 (38)0.01
Bladder and bowel dysfunctionf58 (56)12 (57)0.919 (60)0.76
Constipationg10 (9)5 (23)0.084 (27)0.05
Ultrasonographic abnormalities
 Hydronephrosish21 (4)9 (16)<0.0016 (15)0.001
 Ureter duplication25 (5)8 (14)0.015 (13)0.04
Highest degree of VURi<0.001<0.001
 Grade 160 (11)5 (9)4 (10)
 Grade 2241 (45)12 (21)9 (23)
 Grade 3207 (38)23 (40)15 (38)
 Grade 433 (6)18 (31)12 (30)
Bilateral VUR261 (48)27 (47)0.8120 (50)0.83
  • Values are reported as number (percentage) unless otherwise indicated. Test for association between the sites and age is based on Kruskal–Wallis test, chi-squared, or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. UTI, urinary tract infection; TMP-SMZ, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; VUR, vesicoureteral reflux.

  • a P values are for any scarring versus no scarring.

  • b P values are for new scarring versus no scarring.

  • c Race and Hispanic ethnicity categories were self-assigned by parents.

  • d Three children with no insurance were classified into public category.

  • e Included in this category are children whose index infection was caused by enterococci or Pseudomonas species, not tested for susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and assumed to be resistant. Also included are children whose index infection was caused by bacteria that were resistant to trimethoprim but that were not tested for resistance to sulfamethoxazole.

  • f Defined as a score >6 for female patients and >9 for male patients, based on modification of the Dysfunctional Voiding Scoring System.

  • g Defined as ≥two conditions according to modified Paris Consensus on Childhood Constipation Terminology Group criteria (frequency of bowel movements fewer than three per week, more than one episode of fecal incontinence per week, passing large stool that obstructed toilet, retentive posture and behavior, pain during defecation).

  • h Hydronephrosis less than Society for Fetal Urology grade 4.

  • i One child with central assessment of grade 5 was included in grade 4 (enrollment based on local readings).