Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants by APOL1 risk allele status

CharacteristicAllLow-Risk APOL1: Zero or One Risk AllelesHigh-Risk APOL1: Two Risk AllelesP Value
At Baseline
n693533160
 Age at randomization, yr54.9 (46.6–62.8)55.7 (48.4–63.2)52.8 (43.5–62.4)<0.01
 Women279 (40%)210 (39%)69 (43%)0.41
 European ancestry, %0.13 (0.07–0.22)0.14 (0.07–0.22)0.13 (0.07–0.20)0.47
 Family history of ESRD94 (14%)73 (14%)21 (13%)0.90
 Smoker
  Current195 (28%)150 (28%)45 (28%)0.75
  Past202 (29%)159 (30%)43 (27%)
  Never296 (43%)224 (42%)72 (45%)
 Annual income
  Low ($0–$14,999)323 (47%)250 (47%)73 (46%)0.71
  Mid/high (≥$15,000)234 (34%)182 (34%)52 (33%)
  Declined to answer136 (20%)101 (19%)35 (22%)
 Education
  High school degree412 (60%)316 (59%)96 (60%)0.93
  No high school degree280 (40%)216 (41%)64 (40%)
 Randomized BP goal group
  Low351 (51%)270 (51%)81 (51%)>0.99
  Standard342 (49%)263 (49%)79 (49%)
 Randomized drug group
  Ramipril290 (42%)224 (42%)66 (41%)0.78
  Metoprolol271 (39%)205 (38%)66 (41%)
  Amlodipine132 (19%)104 (20%)28 (18%)
 Systolic BP, mmHg150±24152±25146±220.01
 Diastolic BP, mmHg96±1597±1594±140.03
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg114±16115±17111±150.01
 Body mass index, kg/m231.1±6.730.9±6.531.7±7.20.23
 iGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m249 (37–59)51 (38–59)44 (32–55)<0.001
 Total cholesterol, mg/dl211±44211±44213±440.68
 HDL, mg/dl48±1548±1649±150.40
 Hematocrit, %39.5±539.4±4.839.9±5.40.35
 Serum uric acid, mg/dl8.3±1.88.2±1.98.5±1.70.02
 Serum phosphorus, mg/dl3.5±0.53.5±0.53.5±0.50.91
 Serum ca-phos product, mg2/dl231.8±4.831.7±4.831.9±4.80.74
 Urine sodium, g/d3.5 (2.3–4.8)3.5 (2.3–4.7)3.3 (2.3–4.9)0.97
 Urine potassium, g/d1.6 (1.2–2.2)1.6 (1.2–2.2)1.6 (1.1–2.3)0.51
 Urine urea nitrogen, g/d7.8 (5.9–10.2)7.8 (5.9–10.2)7.8 (6.0–10.0)0.73
 Urine protein, g/g Cr0.1 (0.03–0.3)0.1 (0.03–0.2)0.2 (0.04–0.7)<0.001
 NEAP, mEq/d70.5 (53.1–92.9)70.4 (53.3–90.5)70.9 (51.8–97.1)0.31
At 12 mo of follow-up
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 FGF-23, pg/ml44.6 (30.5–64.1)42.1 (29.2–62.4)48.8 (36.4–67.2)0.02
 iPTH, pg/ml35.7 (23.4–60.5)34.7 (22.9–60.4)38.6 (25.1–61.0)0.30
 25-hydroxy vitamin D, ng/ml13.6 (9.1–19.3)14.2 (9.3–19.4)11.0 (8.3–18.7)0.06
  • Values are presented as means ± SDs, medians (interquartile ranges), or n (%). APOL1, apolipoprotein L1; iGFR, I125 iothalamate GFR; ca-phos, calcium-phosphate; Cr, creatinine; NEAP, net endogenous acid production; FGF-23, fibroblast growth factor 23; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone.