Table 1.

Acid and alkali loads

Acid loads
 CO2: Respiratory acidosis
 Nonvolatile acids: Metabolic acidosis
  Exogenous acids (e.g., salicylate, methanol, and ethylene glycol)
  Pathologic endogenous acids (e.g., ketoacids and lactic acid)
  Decreased renal acid excretion (e.g., renal failure and distal renal tubular acidosis)
  Loss of alkali, equivalent to acid load
   Gastrointestinal losses (e.g., diarrhea)
   Urine losses (e.g., proximal renal tubular acidosis)
Alkali loads
 Excess CO2 exhalation: Respiratory alkalosis
 Nonvolatile alkali: Metabolic alkalosis
  Exogenous alkali (e.g., NaHCO3 administration)
  Loss of acid, equivalent to alkali load
   Gastrointestinal losses (e.g., gastric fluid)
   Excess urine H+ losses and renal production of new HCO3 (most classic causes of metabolic alkalosis, including chloride depletion metabolic alkalosis and mineralocorticoid excess)