Table 4.

Studies reporting the association of mild chronic hyponatremia and bone fractures

StudyType of StudyCohort SizeDefinition of Hyponatremia (mEq/L)Mean PNa±SD (mEq/L)All Fracture Risk (OR)
Gankam Kengne et al. (22)Retrospective case control1026<134131±34.16 (95% CI, 2.2 to 47.71)
Sandhu et al. (23)Retrospective case control728<135131±22.34 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.35)
Kinsella et al. (24)Retrospective case control1408<135132.2±1.82.25 (95% CI, 1.24 to 4.09)
Hoorn et al. (11)Prospective cohort5208<136133.4±21.34b (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.68)
Tolouian et al. (25)Retrospective case control293<135a4.8c (95% CI, 1.06 to 21.67)
Jamal et al. (26)Prospective cohort5122<135132.3±1.83.48d (95% CI, 1.76 to 6.87)
  • PNa, plasma sodium concentration; OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Mean PNa not provided in the publication.

  • b Hazard ratio for nonvertebral fractures.

  • c OR for hip fracture.

  • d Hazard ratio for hip fracture.