Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries receiving in-center hemodialysis

Patient and Facility Characteristicsn=135,545
Patient characteristics
 Age, yrs
  18–4413,567 (10)
  45–6441,782 (31)
  65–7437,402 (28)
  75–8433,854 (25)
  ≥858940 (7)
 Men73,466 (54)
 Race
  White88,115 (65)
  Black41,346 (31)
  Asian3436 (3)
  Native American1505 (1)
  Pacific Islander765 (1)
  Multiracial, other, unknown378 (0.3)
 Hispanic16,011 (12)
 Body mass index, kg/m2
  <2011,061 (8)
  20 to <2537,735 (28)
  25 to <3038,419 (28)
  30 to <3523,265 (17)
  ≥3523,352 (17)
  Missing1713 (1)
 Diabetes mellitus80,818 (60)
 Atherosclerotic heart disease32,055 (24)
 Cerebrovascular disease14,847 (11)
 Peripheral vascular disease21,435 (16)
 Congestive heart failure49,910 (37)
 History of amputation4580 (3)
 Hypertension119,756 (88)
 Cancer10,062 (7)
 COPD13,606 (10)
 Inability to ambulate or transfer9827 (7)
 Etiology of renal disease
  Diabetes64,106 (47)
  Hypertension42,079 (31)
  GN7350 (5)
  Cystic kidney1927 (1)
  Other or unknown20,083 (15)
 Access type
  AV fistula18,710 (14)
  AV graft6349 (5)
  Catheter108,262 (80)
  Other1659 (1)
  Missing565 (0.4)
 Hemoglobin, g/dl10.0±1.7
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m211.1±5.7
 Albumin, g/dl
  <2.518,508 (14)
  2.5–2.922,572 (17)
  3.0–3.428,706 (21)
  3.5–3.923,188 (17)
  ≥410,949 (8)
  Missing31,622 (23)
 Tobacco use, current smoker8841 (7)
 Alcohol dependence1939 (1)
 Drug dependence1772 (1)
 Institutionalization
  Assisted living1000 (1)
  Nursing home9321 (7)
  Other581 (0.4)
 Prior nephrologist care, mo
  None41,366 (31)
  <614,088 (10)
  6–1232,560 (24)
  >1231,388 (23)
  Unknown16,143 (12)
Geographic characteristics
 RUCA
  Isolated small rural5796 (4)
  Small rural8825 (7)
  Large rural15,698 (12)
  Urban105,226 (78)
 ESRD network (patient)
  14815 (4)
  25703 (4)
  33671 (3)
  45733 (4)
  58181 (6)
  614,687 (11)
  79034 (7)
  89084 (7)
  911,577 (9)
  105383 (4)
  118321 (6)
  125537 (4)
  137102 (5)
  1414,060 (10)
  155482 (4)
  163580 (3)
  174973 (4)
  188622 (6)
Socioeconomic status
 Adults ≥25 yrs old with high school education or higher, %
  <501782 (1)
  50–7527,058 (20)
  >75106,705 (79)
 Below poverty in past 12 mo, %
  <59397 (7)
  5–9.925,303 (19)
  10–14.927,746 (20)
  15–19.925,215 (19)
  20–24.918,623 (14)
  ≥2529,261 (22)
Facility characteristics
 Volume, no. of facility patients
  ≤4118,409 (14)
  42–6328,549 (21)
  64–9137,254 (27)
  ≥9251,333 (38)
 Volume of home program
  0/None74,735 (55)
  1–1027,796 (21)
  11–2520,135 (15)
  ≥2612,879 (10)
 Total staffing, nurses, and PCTs13 [9, 18]
 Staffing composition, % nursesa41 [33, 50]
 For profit123,697 (91)
  • Data are presented as n (%), mean±SD, or median [25th, 75th percentiles]. COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; AV, arteriovenous; RUCA, rural-urban commuting area; PCT, patient care technician.

  • a (Nurses/[nurses + PCTs]) × 100.