Table 3.

Multivariable model examining characteristics associated with cause–specific infection–related hospitalization

VariableBloodstream Infection or SepsisDialysis Access InfectionPulmonary InfectionOther Infection
RR (95% CI)P ValueRR (95% CI)P ValueRR (95% CI)P ValueRR (95% CI)P Value
Age, yrs
 18–440.86 (0.79 to 0.94)<0.0011.34 (1.26 to 1.42)<0.0010.98 (0.90 to 1.07)0.621.07 (0.99 to 1.15)0.08
 45–64ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 65–741.19 (1.13 to 1.26)<0.0010.84 (0.80 to 0.88)<0.0011.17 (1.10 to 1.23)<0.0011.00 (0.95 to 1.06)0.97
 75–841.39 (1.31 to 1.47)<0.0010.82 (0.78 to 0.87)<0.0011.36 (1.28 to 1.45)<0.0011.11 (1.05 to 1.18)<0.001
 ≥851.57 (1.44 to 1.71)<0.0010.93 (0.85 to 1.01)0.081.61 (1.48 to 1.75)<0.0011.26 (1.16 to 1.38)<0.001
Men0.91 (0.87 to 0.95)<0.0010.90 (0.87 to 0.93)<0.0010.90 (0.86 to 0.94)<0.0010.72 (0.69 to 0.75)<0.001
Race
 WhiteReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Black0.92 (0.87 to 0.98)<0.010.95 (0.90 to 1.00)0.050.68 (0.64 to 0.72)<0.0010.66 (0.63 to 0.70)<0.001
 Other0.89 (0.79 to 1.00)0.050.98 (0.89 to 1.09)0.740.86 (0.77 to 0.95)0.0040.68 (0.61 to 0.76)<0.001
Hispanic0.86 (0.79 to 0.93)<0.0010.92 (0.85 to 0.99)0.030.89 (0.82 to 0.97)<0.010.87 (0.81 to 0.94)<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <201.14 (1.06 to 1.24)<0.0011.02 (0.95 to 1.10)0.531.20 (1.12 to 1.29)<0.0011.02 (0.94 to 1.11)0.57
 20–24ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 25–290.97 (0.92 to 1.02)0.240.95 (0.91 to 1.00)0.070.88 (0.83 to 0.92)<0.0010.98 (0.93 to 1.03)0.44
 30–340.95 (0.89 to 1.01)0.100.95 (0.90 to 1.01)0.080.81 (0.76 to 0.86)<0.0011.06 (1.00 to 1.13)0.05
 ≥351.00 (0.94 to 1.06)>0.991.05 (1.00 to 1.11)0.070.75 (0.70 to 0.80)<0.0011.16 (1.10 to 1.23)<0.001
Congestive heart failure1.13 (1.09 to 1.18)<0.0011.02 (0.98 to 1.06)0.361.15 (1.10 to 1.21)<0.0011.07 (1.03 to 1.12)0.001
Atherosclerotic heart disease0.99 (0.94 to 1.04)0.710.97 (0.93 to 1.02)0.290.99 (0.94 to 1.05)0.811.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.16
Cerebrovascular disease1.19 (1.12 to 1.26)<0.0011.11 (1.05 to 1.17)<0.0011.07 (1.01 to 1.14)0.031.10 (1.03 to 1.16)0.003
Peripheral vascular disease1.12 (1.06 to 1.19)<0.0011.13 (1.07 to 1.19)<0.0011.01 (0.95 to 1.07)0.701.11 (1.05 to 1.17)<0.001
Hypertension0.75 (0.71 to 0.80)<0.0010.87 (0.82 to 0.92)<0.0010.91 (0.85 to 0.97)0.0030.84 (0.79 to 0.90)<0.001
History of amputation1.31 (1.18 to 1.45)<0.0011.15 (1.05 to 1.26)0.0041.04 (0.92 to 1.18)0.531.21 (1.09 to 1.34)<0.001
Diabetes mellitus1.24 (1.18 to 1.30)<0.0011.11 (1.06 to 1.16)<0.0011.03 (0.99 to 1.08)0.151.28 (1.22 to 1.34)<0.001
COPD1.20 (1.13 to 1.29)<0.0011.10 (1.03 to 1.18)0.0031.78 (1.68 to 1.89)<0.0011.05 (0.98 to 1.12)0.17
Cancer1.28 (1.19 to 1.38)<0.0011.11 (1.03 to 1.20)<0.011.19 (1.10 to 1.28)<0.0011.18 (1.09 to 1.28)<0.001
Inability to ambulate or transfer1.57 (1.46 to 1.69)<0.0011.21 (1.12 to 1.31)<0.0011.11 (1.02 to 1.22)0.021.32 (1.22 to 1.42)<0.001
Vascular access type
 AV fistulaReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Catheter1.54 (1.44 to 1.65)<0.0013.07 (2.82 to 3.36)<0.0011.14 (1.07 to 1.22)<0.0011.32 (1.24 to 1.40)<0.001
 AV graft1.41 (1.28 to 1.57)<0.0012.36 (2.09 to 2.68)<0.0011.06 (0.95 to 1.18)0.301.15 (1.04 to 1.28)<0.01
 Other1.43 (1.18 to 1.73)<0.0012.93 (2.39 to 3.60)<0.0011.04 (0.85 to 1.26)0.711.17 (0.95 to 1.45)0.15
eGFR per 5 ml/min per 1.73 m21.15 (1.13 to 1.17)<0.0011.08 (1.07 to 1.10)<0.0011.09 (1.07 to 1.11)<0.0011.10 (1.09 to 1.12)<0.001
Albumin concentration, g/dl
 <2.51.54 (1.38 to 1.72)<0.0011.36 (1.25 to 1.49)<0.0011.48 (1.33 to 1.65)<0.0011.38 (1.25 to 1.51)<0.001
 2.5 to < 3.01.36 (1.23 to 1.50)<0.0011.28 (1.18 to 1.40)<0.0011.32 (1.18 to 1.46)<0.0011.28 (1.17 to 1.41)<0.001
 3.0 to < 3.51.27 (1.14 to 1.41)<0.0011.15 (1.05 to 1.25)0.0021.28 (1.17 to 1.40)<0.0011.17 (1.08 to 1.28)<0.001
 3.5 to < 4.01.08 (0.98 to 1.20)0.131.11 (1.02 to 1.21)0.021.21 (1.10 to 1.33)<0.0011.05 (0.96 to 1.16)0.27
 ≥4ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Tobacco use, current smoker0.91 (0.83 to 0.99)0.020.96 (0.89 to 1.04)0.281.15 (1.06 to 1.25)<0.0010.91 (0.84 to 0.99)0.03
Alcohol dependence1.02 (0.85 to 1.21)0.861.05 (0.90 to 1.22)0.540.84 (0.70 to 1.01)0.061.24 (1.04 to 1.48)0.02
Drug dependence1.14 (0.93 to 1.40)0.211.20 (1.03 to 1.40)0.021.45 (1.20 to 1.75)<0.0011.30 (1.08 to 1.57)<0.01
Residence in care facility1.76 (1.64 to 1.89)<0.0011.65 (1.54 to 1.76)<0.0011.15 (1.06 to 1.25)<0.0011.43 (1.32 to 1.53)<0.001
Nephrology care before dialysis initiation, mo
 <61.08 (1.00 to 1.17)0.061.07 (1.00 to 1.16)0.061.04 (0.96 to 1.12)0.351.02 (0.95 to 1.10)0.55
 6–121.09 (1.02 to 1.16)<0.011.07 (1.01 to 1.13)0.031.05 (0.99 to 1.11)0.131.00 (0.95 to 1.06)0.92
 ≥12ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 None1.24 (1.17 to 1.33)<0.0011.21 (1.14 to 1.28)<0.0011.03 (0.97 to 1.10)0.301.04 (0.98 to 1.10)0.18
 Unknown1.30 (1.20 to 1.40)<0.0011.25 (1.16 to 1.34)<0.0011.07 (0.99 to 1.16)0.091.21 (1.12 to 1.31)<0.001
RUCA
 UrbanReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Large rural1.01 (0.94 to 1.09)0.760.89 (0.83 to 0.95)<0.0011.02 (0.95 to 1.09)0.620.91 (0.85 to 0.97)<0.01
 Small rural0.95 (0.86 to 1.04)0.240.91 (0.83 to 1.00)0.041.06 (0.97 to 1.16)0.180.87 (0.79 to 0.95)0.003
 Isolated small rural0.93 (0.83 to 1.03)0.150.92 (0.83 to 1.02)0.101.01 (0.91 to 1.12)0.880.81 (0.73 to 0.90)<0.001
ESRD network
 10.78 (0.64 to 0.95)0.011.13 (0.93 to 1.38)0.211.36 (1.11 to 1.65)0.0021.46 (1.22 to 1.76)<0.001
 21.16 (0.94 to 1.43)0.161.22 (1.01 to 1.47)0.041.00 (0.82 to 1.23)0.971.17 (0.97 to 1.41)0.10
 31.10 (0.88 to 1.39)0.401.37 (1.11 to 1.68)0.0031.13 (0.89 to 1.42)0.321.44 (1.19 to 1.76)<0.001
 41.05 (0.87 to 1.28)0.601.26 (1.04 to 1.53)0.021.11 (0.91 to 1.35)0.301.15 (0.97 to 1.37)0.12
 51.19 (0.99 to 1.43)0.061.35 (1.13 to 1.60)<0.0011.34 (1.11 to 1.61)0.0021.27 (1.07 to 1.51)<0.01
 61.07 (0.90 to 1.28)0.411.47 (1.25 to 1.73)<0.0011.30 (1.09 to 1.55)0.0041.18 (1.00 to 1.38)0.05
 71.15 (0.97 to 1.37)0.111.85 (1.56 to 2.19)<0.0011.01 (0.84 to 1.22)0.911.39 (1.18 to 1.64)<0.001
 81.02 (0.85 to 1.22)0.831.30 (1.09 to 1.54)0.0031.29 (1.07 to 1.56)<0.011.23 (1.04 to 1.46)0.02
 91.05 (0.88 to 1.25)0.581.26 (1.06 to 1.50)<0.011.33 (1.11 to 1.59)0.0021.22 (1.04 to 1.44)0.02
 101.08 (0.89 to 1.30)0.451.13 (0.93 to 1.36)0.221.39 (1.15 to 1.69)<0.0011.32 (1.10 to 1.58)0.003
 111.06 (0.89 to 1.27)0.521.36 (1.14 to 1.62)<0.0011.07 (0.89 to 1.30)0.471.10 (0.93 to 1.31)0.27
 120.86 (0.70 to 1.04)0.121.19 (0.99 to 1.43)0.071.32 (1.09 to 1.62)<0.011.23 (1.03 to 1.47)0.02
 131.18 (0.98 to 1.42)0.081.49 (1.25 to 1.77)<0.0011.33 (1.10 to 1.62)0.0031.18 (0.99 to 1.41)0.06
 140.96 (0.81 to 1.15)0.671.24 (1.06 to 1.47)<0.011.16 (0.97 to 1.39)0.111.19 (1.01 to 1.39)0.04
 150.87 (0.71 to 1.05)0.151.24 (1.03 to 1.50)0.021.21 (1.00 to 1.47)0.051.11 (0.92 to 1.34)0.26
 16ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 171.09 (0.90 to 1.31)0.391.01 (0.83 to 1.22)0.931.24 (1.02 to 1.50)0.031.09 (0.90 to 1.31)0.38
 181.37 (1.14 to 1.64)<0.0011.13 (0.95 to 1.34)0.181.07 (0.88 to 1.30)0.501.10 (0.92 to 1.31)0.28
Adults ≥25 yrs old who are high school graduates or higher, %
 <50ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 50–750.95 (0.79 to 1.13)0.551.17 (0.98 to 1.41)0.090.93 (0.77 to 1.13)0.481.04 (0.88 to 1.23)0.66
 >750.89 (0.74 to 1.08)0.241.17 (0.97 to 1.41)0.110.90 (0.74 to 1.10)0.301.04 (0.87 to 1.24)0.69
All people below poverty in the past 12 mo, %
 <5ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 5–9.90.97 (0.88 to 1.07)0.510.98 (0.90 to 1.08)0.701.03 (0.94 to 1.13)0.550.97 (0.89 to 1.06)0.53
 10–14.90.96 (0.87 to 1.06)0.470.99 (0.90 to 1.08)0.761.03 (0.94 to 1.13)0.550.98 (0.89 to 1.06)0.58
 15–19.90.97 (0.88 to 1.07)0.540.99 (0.90 to 1.09)0.841.05 (0.95 to 1.15)0.361.02 (0.93 to 1.12)0.70
 20–24.90.99 (0.89 to 1.10)0.900.99 (0.90 to 1.09)0.861.12 (1.01 to 1.25)0.031.01 (0.91 to 1.11)0.85
 ≥250.98 (0.88 to 1.10)0.771.06 (0.96 to 1.18)0.231.10 (0.99 to 1.22)0.091.02 (0.93 to 1.13)0.65
Volume, no. of facility patients
  ≤41ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 42–631.03 (0.95 to 1.13)0.471.02 (0.94 to 1.10)0.651.03 (0.95 to 1.11)0.481.09 (1.01 to 1.17)0.03
 64–911.02 (0.93 to 1.12)0.681.05 (0.97 to 1.14)0.231.12 (1.03 to 1.22)<0.011.07 (0.99 to 1.16)0.07
 >910.96 (0.86 to 1.08)0.501.06 (0.96 to 1.18)0.221.16 (1.05 to 1.28)0.0031.08 (0.99 to 1.19)0.10
Total no. of nurses and PCTs per five staff higher1.00 (0.98 to 1.03)0.830.98 (0.96 to 1.01)0.200.97 (0.95 to 0.99)0.010.98 (0.96 to 1.00)0.12
Staff composition per 10% higher nurse composition1.00 (0.98 to 1.01)0.720.98 (0.96 to 0.99)0.0041.00 (0.98 to 1.02)0.971.00 (0.98 to 1.02)0.98
Home program volume
 0/NoneReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 1–101.04 (0.98 to 1.11)0.181.06 (1.00 to 1.13)0.041.07 (1.01 to 1.13)0.031.07 (1.01 to 1.14)0.02
 11–250.99 (0.92 to 1.07)0.841.03 (0.95 to 1.11)0.481.03 (0.96 to 1.10)0.451.04 (0.98 to 1.11)0.20
 ≥260.98 (0.88 to 1.08)0.661.00 (0.91 to 1.10)0.950.93 (0.84 to 1.01)0.101.01 (0.92 to 1.10)0.82
  • RR, rate ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; AV, arteriovenous; RUCA, rural-urban commuting area; HS, high school; PCT, patient care technician.