Table 1.

Baseline clinical characteristics of all patients with type 2 diabetes and of the two subgroups stratified according to the occurrence of primary outcomes

VariableAllPrimary End PointP Valuea
Male (%)57.854.270.90.001
Age (yr)59±1058±1062±10<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.5±3.323.4±3.323.9±3.30.07
Obesity, ≥30 kg/m2 (%)
Duration of diabetes (yr)10 (5–16)9 (4–16)11 (7–18)0.001
Diet/OHA/insulin (%)23/54/2326/54/2010/57/33<0.001
HbA1c (%)7.6±1.17.5±1.07.9±1.3<0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)214±35214±36213±300.78
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)55 (46–65)56 (47–66)52 (43–62)0.03
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)132±31133±32132±290.65
Triglycerides (mg/dl)100 (72–151)96 (70–147)112 (81–155)0.02
Systolic BP (mmHg)134±18132±18139±18<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)77±1076±1078±100.11
Hypertension (%)46.941.765.7<0.001
Using RAS inhibitors (%)15.413.721.60.02
Current smoking (%)28.327.232.10.27
Urinary AER (μg/min)12 (6–29)10 (6–23)23 (10–89)<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)89±1989±1984±180.010
Urinary sodium excretion (g/d)5.3±2.25.3±2.25.3±2.30.96
Urinary potassium excretion (g/d)2.4±0.92.4±0.92.2±1.00.02
Urinary sodium to potassium ratio4.1±1.63.9±1.64.4±1.70.006
Serum sodium (mEq/L)141±2141±2141±20.83
Serum potassium (mEq/L)4.4±0.34.4±0.34.4±0.40.19
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD for normally distributed continuous variables, median (interquartile range) for skewed continuous variables, or as otherwise indicated. OHA, oral hypoglycemic agent; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; RAS, renin-angiotensin system; AER, albumin excretion rate.

  • a Differences between the two subgroups were compared with a chi-squared test for categorical variables, t test for normally distributed continuous variables, and Mann–Whitney U test for skewed continuous variables.