Table 1.

Baseline characteristics according to rate of kidney function decline category

CharacteristicOverall
CohortCKD Progression by eGFR Change Values
No Decline 
in Kidney
Function ( >0)Mild
(Between 0 and −1)Moderate
(Between −1 and −5)Severe (<−5)
Number of patients247,888111,318 (44.9)36,132 (14.6)74,117 (29.9)26,321 (10.6)
Patient study outcome
 Without hospitalizations170,668 (68.9)77,535 (69.7)25,613 (70.9)49,336 (66.6)18,184 (69.1)
 With hospitalizations77,220 (31.2)33,783 (30.4)10,519 (29.1)24,781 (33.4)8137 (30.9)
 With hospitalizations without readmission53,465 (69.2)24,198 (71.6)7466 (71.0)16,630 (67.1)5171 (63.6)
 With readmissions23,755 (30.8)9585 (28.4)3053 (29.0)8151 (32.9)2966 (36.5)
Age, average (SD)70.3 (8.3)69.0 (8.9)71.1 (7.8)71.7 (7.3)71.1 (7.7)
Race
 White216,775 (87.5)96,785 (86.9)31,880 (88.2)65,045 (87.8)23,065 (87.9)
 Black26,714 (10.8)12,583 (11.3)3640 (10.1)7662 (10.3)2829 (10.8)
 Other4399 (1.8)1950 (1.8)612 (1.7)1410 (1.9)427 (1.6)
Male sex237,128 (95.7)105,816 (95.1)34,427 (95.3)71,371 (96.3)25,514 (96.9)
Diabetes mellitus87,807 (35.4)33,797 (30.4)11,120 (30.8)30,218 (40.8)12,672 (48.1)
Hypertension207,621 (83.8)88,960 (79.9)29,607 (81.9)65,517 (88.4)23,537 (89.4)
Cardiovascular disease116,593 (47.0)47,009 (42.2)16,342 (45.2)38,551 (52.0)14,691 (55.8)
Hyperlipidemia176,627 (71.3)76,557 (68.8)25,845 (71.5)55,421 (74.8)18,804 (71.4)
Peripheral artery disease12,396 (5.0)4344 (3.9)1553 (4.3)4698 (6.3)1801 (6.8)
Cerebrovascular disease2331 (0.9)817 (0.7)324 (0.9)876 (1.2)314 (1.2)
Chronic lung disease58,418 (26.6)25,491 (22.9)7953 (22.0)18,681 (25.2)6293 (23.9)
Hepatitis C3964 (1.6)1955 (1.8)438 (1.2)1023 (1.4)548 (2.1)
HIV14,376 (5.8)6245 (5.6)2006 (5.6)4770 (6.4)1355 (5.2)
Dementia10,995 (4.4)4663 (4.2)1484 (4.1)3612 (4.9)1236 (4.7)
Death108,478 (43.8)42,239 (37.9)14,301 (39.6)36,197 (48.8)15,741 (59.8)
eGFR, average (SD)
 Initial54.0 (4.2)53.9 (4.2)54.1 (4.2)53.9 (4.2)54.3 (4.2)
 Final54.5 (13.5)63.7 (11.3)53.4 (6.9)46.8 (8.4)39.1 (11.0)
 Rate of eGFR change (ml/min/1.73m2/year)a0.2 (6.2)4.4 (6.1)−0.5 (0.3)−2.6 (1.1)−8.5 (4.8)
Median follow-up, yrb9.0 (5.3–9.0)9.0 (6.2–9.0)9.0 (6.2–9.0)9.0 (4.7–9.0)7.4 (3.2–9.0)
Median no. of eGFR measures7 (4–11)6 (4–9)7 (3–11)8 (5–13)6 (3–12)
Median duration between first and last eGFR, yr3.2 (2.0–4.2)3.0 (1.9–4.0)3.4 (2.0–4.3)3.7 (2.6–4.4)2.3 (1.3–3.6)
Patients with hospitalizations during the baseline periodc51,566 (20.8)21,445 (19.3)6223 (17.2)17,197 (23.2)6701 (25.5)
No. of hospitalizations, average (SD)
 During baseline periodc0.5 (1.4)0.4 (1.3)0.4 (1.1)0.5 (1.4)0.7 (1.7)
 After time zero1.0 (2.3)0.9 (2.2)0.9 (2.2)1.1 (2.5)1.1 (2.6)
Length of hospital stay, d/yr
 Median2.0 (0.8–5.7)1.7 (0.7–4.8)1.8 (0.7–4.8)2.3 (0.8–6.3)3.2 (1.0–9.1)
 Average (SD)7.3 (22.6)6.3 (20.3)5.9 (18.5)7.9 (23.3)11.8 (31.4)
No. of patients without baseline hospitalizations196,322 (79.2)89,873 (45.8)29,909 (15.2)56,920 (29.0)19,620 (10.0)
No. of patients with baseline hospitalizations51,566 (20.8)21,445 (41.6)6223 (12.1)17,197 (33.3)6701 (13.0)
  • Data are presented as n (%) or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated. eGFR change values are given in ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year. Percentages represent the column percentage.

  • a Values reflect the rate of change of eGFR per year calculated using an ordinary least-squares regression method fitted to all outpatient eGFR readings for each patient. The slope of the regression line describes the rate of change in kidney function (eGFR) over time.

  • b Follow-up time is the time between time zero and censorship.

  • c The baseline period ranges from October 1999 to the last eGFR (time zero).