Table 3.

Performance of AKI markers

MarkerRenal RecoveryMajor Adverse Kidney Events
AUC-ROCCutoff ValueSensitivitySpecificityAUC-ROCCutoff ValueSensitivitySpecificity
At inclusion
 FENa (%)0.65
(0.50 to 0.78)0.080.62
(0.42 to 0.79)0.82
(0.63–0.94)0.64
(0.50 to 0.76)0.090.81
(0.54 to 0.96)0.51
(0.35 to 0.67)
 FEUrea (%)0.61
(0.47 to 0.74)80.96
(0.82 to 0.99)0.32
(0.16 to 0.52)0.66
(0.51 to 0.79)90.44
(0.20 to 0.70)0.85
(0.71 to 0.94)
 Proteinuria (g/dl)0.62
(0.47 to 0.74)0.080.55
(0.36 to 0.74)0.69
(0.48 to 0.86)0.71
(0.57 to 0.82)0.080.81
(0.54 to 0.96)0.54
(0.37 to 0.70)
 RI0.69
(0.56 to 0.81)0.700.64
(0.44 to 0.81)0.71
(0.49 to 0.87)0.79
(0.65 to 0.89)0.710.87
(0.59 to 0.98)0.68
(0.50 to 0.82)
 Plasma NGAL (ng/ml)0.70
(0.57 to 0.82)12900.90
(0.73 to 0.98)0.50
(0.31 to 0.69)0.68
(0.55 to 0.80)10320.69
(0.41 to 0.89)0.76
(0.60 to 0.88)
 (TIMP-2)*(IGFBP7) ([ng/ml]2/1000)0.71
(0.57 to 0.82)5.40.93
(0.77 to 0.99)0.43
(0.24 to 0.63)0.79
(0.66 to 0.88)2.60.81
(0.54 to 0.96)0.71
(0.54 to 0.84)
24 h after inclusion
 FENa (%)0.54
(0.39 to 0.69)0.760.81
(0.61 to 0.94)0.41
(0.21 to 0.64)0.63
(0.48 to 0.76)0.740.58
(0.28 to 0.85)0.78
(0.61 to 0.90)
 FEUrea (%)0.57
(0.42 to 0.71)210.92
(0.75 to 0.99)0.27
(0.11 to 0.50)0.64
(0.47 to 0.78)300.83
(0.52 to 0.98)0.53
(0.36 to 0.70)
 Proteinuria (g/dl)0.57
(0.41 to 0.73)0.110.92
(0.75 to 0.99)0.39
(0.20 to 0.61)0.54
(0.39 to 0.68)0.160.29
(0.08 to 0.58)0.97
(0.85 to 0.99)
 Creatinine ratioa0.70
(0.56 to 0.84)0.970.6
(0.39 to 0.79)0.76
(0.56 to 0.90)0.61
(0.42 to 0.80)1.020.73
(0.57 to 0.86)0.62
(0.32 to 0.86)
 RI0.70
(0.55 to 0.82)0.771
(0.87 to 1)0.39
(0.2 to 0.61)0.75
(0.61 to 0.86)0.690.81
(0.54 to 0.96)0.64
(0.45 to 0.80)
 Plasma NGAL (ng/ml)0.78
(0.64 to 0.88)11901
(0.86 to 1)0.54
(0.33 to 0.74)0.76
(0.61 to 0.87)9020.71
(0.42 to 0.92)0.80
(0.63 to 0.92)
 (TIMP-2)*(IGFBP7) ([ng/ml]2/1000)0.76
(0.62 to 0.87)1.41
(0.86 to 1)0.54
(0.33 to 0.74)0.81
(0.67 to 0.91)2.30.57
(0.29 to 0.82)0.97
(0.85 to 1)
 Kinetic eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)0.87
(0.73 to 0.94)410.86
(0.68 to 0.96)0.80
(0.59 to 0.93)0.81
(0.67 to 0.96)390.77
(0.46 to 0.95)0.73
(0.57 to 0.86)
  • Data are presented with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. Major adverse kidney events were defined as death, use of RRT, or persistence of renal dysfunction (defined by serum creatinine ≥200% of the reference) at hospital discharge truncated at 30 days. FENa, fractional excretion of sodium; FEU, fractional excretion of urea; RI, renal resistive index; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin; [TIMP-2]*[IGFBP7], tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and urine insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 7; AUC-ROC, area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve.

  • a Ratio of value at inclusion and 24 hours later.