Table 2.

Multivariable model examining characteristics associated with all–cause infection–related hospitalization

VariableRate Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)P Value
Age, yrs
 18–441.12 (1.07 to 1.17)<0.001
 45–64Reference
 65–741.03 (1.00 to 1.06)0.08
 75–841.14 (1.10 to 1.17)<0.001
 ≥851.30 (1.23 to 1.37)<0.001
Men0.86 (0.84 to 0.88)<0.001
Race
 WhiteReference
 Black0.82 (0.79 to 0.85)<0.001
 Other0.85 (0.80 to 0.90)<0.001
Hispanic0.89 (0.85 to 0.93)<0.001
Body mass index, kg/m2
 <201.10 (1.06 to 1.15)<0.001
 20 to <25Reference
 25 to <300.95 (0.92 to 0.98)<0.001
 30 to <350.95 (0.91 to 0.98)0.002
 ≥351.00 (0.97 to 1.04)0.94
Congestive heart failure1.09 (1.06 to 1.11)<0.001
Atherosclerotic heart disease1.01 (0.98 to 1.04)0.70
Cerebrovascular disease1.12 (1.08 to 1.16)<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease1.10 (1.07 to 1.14)<0.001
Hypertension0.84 (0.81 to 0.87)<0.001
History of amputation1.19 (1.11 to 1.26)<0.001
Diabetes mellitus1.16 (1.13 to 1.19)<0.001
Cancer1.20 (1.15 to 1.25)<0.001
COPD1.25 (1.21 to 1.30)<0.001
Inability to ambulate or transfer1.33 (1.27 to 1.39)<0.001
Vascular access type
 AV fistulaReference
 Catheter1.59 (1.53 to 1.65)<0.001
 AV graft1.37 (1.28 to 1.45)<0.001
 Other1.46 (1.30 to 1.64)<0.001
eGFR per 5 ml/min per 1.73 m21.11 (1.10 to 1.12)<0.001
Albumin concentration, g/dl
 <2.51.44 (1.35 to 1.53)<0.001
 2.5 to <3.01.31 (1.24 to 1.39)<0.001
 3.0 to <3.51.21 (1.14 to 1.29)<0.001
 3.5 to <4.01.11 (1.05 to 1.18)<0.001
 ≥4Reference
Tobacco use, current smoker0.98 (0.94 to 1.03)0.51
Alcohol dependence1.05 (0.95 to 1.15)0.35
Drug dependence1.26 (1.14 to 1.40)<0.001
Residence in care facility1.51 (1.44 to 1.58)<0.001
Nephrology care before dialysis initiation, mo
 <61.04 (1.00 to 1.09)0.07
 6–121.04 (1.01 to 1.07)0.02
 ≥12Reference
 None1.13 (1.09 to 1.17)<0.001
 Unknown1.19 (1.14 to 1.25)<0.001
RUCA
 UrbanReference
 Large rural0.96 (0.91 to 1.00)0.04
 Small rural0.95 (0.90 to 1.00)0.04
 Isolated small rural0.91 (0.86 to 0.97)0.003
ESRD network
 11.16 (1.03 to 1.30)0.01
 21.14 (1.01 to 1.29)0.04
 31.28 (1.11 to 1.48)<0.001
 41.13 (1.01 to 1.27)0.04
 51.28 (1.15 to 1.42)<0.001
 61.25 (1.14 to 1.38)<0.001
 71.36 (1.23 to 1.51)<0.001
 81.20 (1.08 to 1.33)<0.001
 91.22 (1.10 to 1.35)<0.001
 101.20 (1.08 to 1.35)0.001
 111.15 (1.04 to 1.28)<0.01
 121.13 (1.01 to 1.26)0.04
 131.29 (1.16 to 1.44)<0.001
 141.15 (1.04 to 1.27)<0.01
 151.10 (0.99 to 1.23)0.08
 16Reference
 171.10 (0.99 to 1.23)0.09
 181.18 (1.06 to 1.32)0.002
Adults ≥25 yrs old who are high school graduates or higher, %
 <50Reference
 50–751.03 (0.92 to 1.16)0.60
 >751.01 (0.89 to 1.15)0.85
All people below poverty in the past 12 mo, %
 <5Reference
 5–9.90.98 (0.93 to 1.04)0.59
 10–14.90.99 (0.93 to 1.05)0.69
 15–19.91.00 (0.94 to 1.06)0.92
 20–24.91.02 (0.96 to 1.08)0.54
 ≥251.04 (0.97 to 1.10)0.27
Volume, no. of facility patients
 ≤41Reference
 42–631.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.12
 64–911.05 (1.00 to 1.11)0.05
 >911.04 (0.97 to 1.11)0.29
Total no. of nurses and PCTs per five staff increase0.99 (0.98 to 1.01)0.29
Staff composition per 10% nurse increase0.99 (0.98 to 1.00)0.10
Home program volume
 None or 0Reference
 1–101.07 (1.03 to 1.11)<0.001
 11–251.02 (0.97 to 1.07)0.47
 ≥261.00 (0.94 to 1.06)0.98
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; AV, arteriovenous; RUCA, rural-urban commuting area; PCT, patient care technician.