Table 1.

Studies reporting the association of mild chronic hyponatremia and mortality in ambulatory and community settings

StudyStudy DesignCohort SizeDefinition of Hyponatremia (mEq/L)Mean PNa ±SD (mEq/L)Prevalence of Hyponatremia (%)Mortality Rate (%) in the Hyponatremic GroupMortality Risk (Adjusted HR)
Sajadieh et al. (10)Prospective cohort671≤134133a2.143b3.56 (95% CI, 1.53 to 8.28)
≤137136a9.227b2.21 (95% CI, 1.29 to 3.80)
Hoorn et al. (11)Prospective cohort5208<136133.4±27.751.61.21 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.43)
Gankam-Kengne et al. (12)Prospective cohort3551<135133a6.314.41.75 (95% CI, 1.08 to 2.81)
Mohan et al. (13)Cross-sectional14,697<133 (1999–2002) and <136 (2003–2004)132.3±2.61.72112.43 (95% CI, 2.31 to 5.63)
  • PNa, plasma sodium concentration; HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.

  • a Median PNa.

  • b Composite outcome of mortality or first myocardial infarction.