Table 1.

Baseline characteristics by ESRD case status

CharacteristicESRD CasesControlsP Value
N135186
Age (yr)64.9 (5.5)64.7 (5.7)0.77
Sex, N (%) women59 (43.7)81 (43.6)0.98
Race, N (%) black56 (41.5)67 (36.0)0.32
Diabetes, N (%)85 (63.0)97 (52.2)0.05
Fasting blood glucose144 (63)136 (71)0.29
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)58.7 (29.6)71.0 (23.7)<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2) group, N (%)0.002
 ≤4451 (37.8)31 (16.7)
 45–5922 (16.3)41 (22.0)
 60–7415 (11.1)30 (16.1)
 75–8926 (19.3)42 (22.5)
 90–10412 (8.9)22 (11.8)
 ≥1059 (6.5)2 (10.8)
ACR (mg/g), median (interquartile range)73 (9–705)13 (3–97)<0.001
ACR (mg/g) group<0.001
 <30 53 (39.3)101 (54.3)
 30–29936 (26.7)57 (30.7)
 ≥30046 (34.1)28 (15.1)
Normalized urinary biomarkers
 L-FABP/Cr<0.001
  Undetectable (0 ng/ml)33 (24.4)60 (32.3)
  Below LOD for L-FABP (>0–2.4 ng/ml)19 (14.1)50 (26.9)
  Above LOD and below median detectable (<6.67 ng/mg)30 (22.2)49 (26.3)
  Above LOD and above median detectable (≥6.67 ng/mg)53 (39.3)27 (14.5)
 KIM-1/Cr (pg/mg)914 (536–1851)665 (381–1047)<0.001
 NAG/Cr (milliunits/mg)5.6 (3.1–9.9)3.9 (2.5–6.2)0.002
 NGAL/Cr (ng/mg)30.2 (10.7–86.8)14.8 (8.5–40.2)<0.001
Raw urinary biomarkers
 L-FABP<0.001
  Undetectable (0 ng/ml)33 (24.4)60 (32.6)
  Below LOD (>0–2.4 ng/ml)19 (14.1)50 (26.9)
  Above LOD and below median detectable (≥2.4 to <7.59 ng/ml)31 (23.0)48 (25.8)
  Above LOD and above median detectable (≥7.59 ng/ml)52 (38.5)28 (15.0)
 KIM-1 (pg/ml)821 (365–1542)573 (299–1233)0.03
 NAG (milliunits/ml)4.3 (2.3–8.2)3.9 (2.1–6.5)0.07
 NGAL (ng/ml)24.6 (8.8–77.9)15.1 (7.5–36.0)0.001
  • Continuous characteristics are presented as mean (SD) or median (25th–75th percentile). Categorical characteristics are presented as N (%). ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; L-FABP, urinary liver fatty acid binding protein; Cr, indexed to urinary creatinine; LOD, limit of detection; KIM-1, urinary kidney injury molecule 1; NAG, urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase; NGAL, urinary neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin.