Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study patients as a whole and stratified by sex-specific serum uric acid quintiles

CharacteristicWhole Cohort
(n=13,964)Serum Uric Acid QuintilesP Value
1st (Lowest)
n=3,0052nd
(n=2712)3rd
(n=2877)4th
(n=2830)5th (Highest)
n=2540)
Men7814 (56.0)1690 (56.2)1443 (53.2)1707 (59.3)1566 (55.3)1408 (55.4)
Age (yr)64±1063±1164±1064±1064±965±9<0.001
Duration of diabetes (yr)10±811±910±810±89±89±8<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)29.3±5.127.5±4.428.5±4.629.4±4.930.2±5.131.2±5.5<0.001
HbA1c (%)7.2±1.37.6±1.47.2±1.37.2±1.27.0±1.17.0±1.1<0.001
Serum uric acid (mg/dl)5.1±1.63.5±0.64.4±0.35.1±0.35.8±0.47.1±2.2
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)187±36187±36186±36186±37186±36188±370.34
Triglycerides (mg/dl)132±90117±88121±81134±92138±82154±102<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)52±1555±1653±1551±1450±1449±14<0.001
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)110±32110±32110±32110±33110±32111±330.72
Systolic BP (mmHg)138±17136±18138±18138±17139±17139±18<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)80±979±879±880±980±980±9<0.001
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.84±0.160.81±0.160.82±0.150.85±0.160.86±0.160.89±0.17<0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)85±1389±1387±1385±1383±1380±13<0.001
Retinopathy1418 (10.2)367 (12.2)287 (10.6)305 (10.6)235 (8.3)224 (8.8)0.004
Smokers1116 (16.8)279 (19.2)253 (19.5)229 (17.0)203 (14.9)152 (12.9)<0.001
Lipid-lowering treatment5985 (42.9)1237 (41.2)1162 (42.8)1254 (43.6)1223 (43.2)1109 (43.7)0.225
Treatment with statins5485 (39.3)1112 (37.0)1081 (39.9)1163 (40.4)1131 (40.0)998 (39.3)0.29
Treatment with fibrates283 (2.0)98 (3.3)47 (1.7)47 (1.6)47 (1.7)44 (1.7)0.002
Antihypertensive treatment7978 (57.1)1391 (46.3)1435 (52.9)1651 (57.4)1781 (62.9)1720 (67.7)<0.001
Treatment with ACE inhibitors/ARBs6639 (47.5)1139 (37.9)1173 (43.3)1393 (48.4)1488 (52.6)1446 (56.9)<0.001
Aspirin2689 (19.3)526 (17.5)531 (19.6)570 (19.8)554 (19.6)508 (20.0)0.04
Antidiabetic therapy
 Diet1383 (9.9)210 (7.0)303 (11.2)307 (10.7)281 (9.9)282 (11.1)<0.001
 Oral antidiabetic drugs9247 (66.2)1795 (59.7)1714 (63.2)1962 (68.2)1993 (70.4)1783 (70.2)<0.001
 Oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin1747 (12.5)437 (14.5)357 (13.2)339 (11.8)336 (11.9)278 (10.9)0.003
 Insulin1587 (11.4)563 (18.7)338 (12.5)269 (9.4)220 (7.8)197 (7.8)<0.001
  • Values are expressed as mean±SD or absolute frequency (percentage). Patients' baseline missing data: known duration of diabetes in 389 (2.8%), BMI in 1430 (10.2%), HbA1c in 71 (0.5%), total cholesterol in 143 (1.0%), triglycerides in 191 (1.4%), HDL cholesterol in 326 (2.3%), LDL cholesterol in 438 (3.1%), BP in 1608 (11.5%), and smoking status in 7327 (52.5%). The P values refer to the regression coefficient between each characteristic and serum uric acid as dependent variable in a linear regression model adjusting for patient's sex. BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor antagonists.