Table 4.

Hazard ratio of the association between rate of kidney function decline and risk of at least 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or more hospitalizations or readmissions controlling for last eGFR

Risk of at LeastCKD Progression by eGFR Change Values
No Decline in Kidney
Function ( >0)Mild
(Between 0 and −1)Moderate
(Between −1 and −5)Severe
(<−5)
Hospitalizations
 11.07 (1.04 to 1.10)1.001.11 (1.09 to 1.14)1.07 (1.03 to 1.11)
 21.06 (1.03 to 1.09)1.001.16 (1.13 to 1.20)a1.15 (1.11 to 1.20)a
 31.04 (1.00 to 1.08)1.001.20 (1.16 to 1.25)b1.22 (1.17 to 1.28)a
 41.05 (1.00 to 1.09)1.001.25 (1.19 to 1.30)b1.31 (1.24 to 1.38)a
 51.04 (0.99 to 1.09)1.001.29 (1.22 to 1.36)b1.39 (1.31 to 1.48)a
 P value for trend0.16N/A<0.001<0.001
Readmissions
 11.08 (1.03 to 1.13)1.001.10 (1.05 to 1.15)1.23 (1.16 to 1.30)
 21.06 (1.00 to 1.13)1.001.14 (1.07 to 1.21)1.37 (1.27 to 1.48)a
 31.06 (0.97 to 1.16)1.001.16 (1.06 to 1.27)1.50 (1.35 to 1.67)b
 41.04 (0.92 to 1.17)1.001.23 (1.09 to 1.38)1.69 (1.48 to 1.94)b
 51.02 (0.87 to 1.19)1.001.20 (1.03 to 1.40)1.66 (1.39 to 1.97)
 P value for trend0.47N/A0.09<0.001
  • Data are presented as n (%) or hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals). eGFR change values are given in ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year. Models were adjusted for last eGFR value, age, race, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, hepatitis C, and dementia. P value for interaction denotes a significant interaction between CKD progression group and stratum (number of hospitalizations) and indicates that the stratum’s hazard ratio is significantly different from the previous stratum in the same CKD progression group. P value for trend was obtained from an interaction between CKD progression group and number of hospitalizations while treating number of hospitalizations as a continuous variable. A significant P value for trend indicates that compared with the referent category (patients with mild CKD progression), the hazard ratio of the category of interest significantly increases as the number of hospitalizations increases. N/A, not applicable.

  • a P value for interaction <0.001.

  • b P value for interaction <0.05.