Table 3.

Multivariate relative risk ratios for 4-year renal outcomes

VariableRRR for Alb−/eGFR+
n=1,109P ValueRRR for Alb+/eGFR−
n=1,968P ValueRRR for Alb+/eGFR+
n=286P Value
Serum uric acid
 2nd quintile1.46 (1.14 to 1.88)0.0031.04 (0.90 to 1.21)a0.5760.99 (0.69 to 1.42)a0.94
 3rd quintile1.44 (1.11 to 1.87)0.0060.93 (0.75 to 1.15)a0.4901.20 (0.80 to 1.80)0.37
 4th quintile1.95 (1.48 to 2.58)<0.0011.09 (0.89 to 1.32)a0.4171.08 (0.76 to 1.52)a0.67
 5th quintile2.61 (1.98 to 3.42)<0.0011.14 (0.94 to 1.38)a0.1841.54 (1.13 to 2.09)a0.006
Male sex0.83 (0.72 to 0.96)0.0101.55 (1.39 to 1.72)a<0.0011.02 (0.76 to 1.38)b0.88
Age (by 10 yr)2.06 (1.87 to 2.28)<0.0011.22 (1.07 to 1.40)a0.0031.87 (1.45 to 2.40)b<0.001
Known duration of diabetes
 5–10 yr1.12 (0.91 to 1.38)0.2770.98 (0.86 to 1.12)0.7540.96 (0.66 to 1.40)0.84
 >10 yr1.13 (0.89 to 1.45)0.3220.91 (0.80 to 1.04)0.1701.05 (0.78 to 1.41)0.73
BMI
 27–30 kg/m21.36 (1.09 to 1.70)0.0061.16 (1.00 to 1.35)0.0530.93 (0.63 to 1.38)0.72
 >30 kg/m21.33 (1.09 to 1.63)0.0061.20 (1.04 to 1.39)0.0120.95 (0.66 to 1.39)0.81
HbA1c ≥7%1.15 (0.97 to 1.36)0.1041.17 (0.98 to 1.39)0.0831.41 (1.02 to 1.95)0.04
Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl1.20 (1.02 to 1.41)0.0281.11 (0.96 to 1.28)0.1551.56 (1.25 to 1.96)ab<0.001
HDL cholesterol <40 (men) or <50 mg/dl (women)1.08 (0.90 to 1.28)0.4181.23 (1.06 to 1.44)0.0081.37 (1.05 to 1.80)0.02
LDL cholesterol ≥100 mg/dl0.72 (0.63 to 0.83)<0.0010.95 (0.86 to 1.04)a0.2680.87 (0.70 to 1.09)0.23
BP ≥140/85 mmHg1.16 (0.98 to 1.36)0.0811.05 (0.91 to 1.20)0.5331.08 (0.82 to 1.43)0.58
eGFR (by 10 below 90 ml/min per 1.73 m2)2.16 (1.90 to 2.46)<0.0011.03 (0.94 to 1.13)a0.4712.33 (1.95 to 2.78)b<0.001
Retinopathy1.11 (0.93 to 1.33)0.2531.38 (1.08 to 1.76)0.0111.15 (0.78 to 1.71)0.49
Smokers0.85 (0.65 to 1.11)0.2461.23 (1.02 to 1.48)a0.0281.61 (1.00 to 2.59)b0.05
Treatment with statins1.08 (0.94 to 1.25)0.2870.95 (0.80 to 1.13)0.5730.80 (0.57 to 1.12)0.20
Treatment with fibrates1.32 (0.90 to 1.94)0.1560.85 (0.51 to 1.44)0.5510.74 (0.32 to 1.73)0.49
Antihypertensive treatment1.04 (0.73 to 1.50)0.8201.14 (0.83 to 1.57)0.4061.21 (0.83 to 1.77)0.32
Treatment with ACE inhibitor/ARBs1.17 (0.92 to 1.48)0.2001.15 (0.93 to 1.42)0.1861.36 (0.84 to 2.21)0.21
Aspirin0.90 (0.71 to 1.14)0.3641.06 (0.84 to 1.33)0.6441.10 (0.67 to 1.82)0.70
Antidiabetic therapy
 Diet0.68 (0.50 to 0.94)0.0190.84 (0.58 to 1.23)0.3680.28 (0.08 to 1.01)0.05
 Oral antidiabetic drugsReferenceReferenceReference
 Oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin1.45 (1.21 to 1.73)<0.0011.16 (0.83 to 1.61)0.3891.39 (0.95 to 2.04)0.09
 Insulin1.30 (1.08 to 1.56)0.0060.87 (0.67 to 1.11)a0.2591.57 (0.96 to 2.55)b0.07
  • Values in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals. Multinomial logistic regression analysis performed with the missing indicator method for each incomplete variable. Reference category for the variable known duration of diabetes was <5 years; for BMI, <27 kg/m2; and for serum uric acid, the first quintile. Goodness-of-fit test: P=0.20 according to observed and expected frequencies by quartiles of predictions. Model discrimination by c-statistic was 0.82 for Alb−/eGFR+, 0.61 for Alb+/eGFR− and 0.83 for Alb+/eGFR+. BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; RRR, relative risk ratios with eGFR−/Alb− as reference group; Alb−, normoalbuminuria; Alb+, albuminuria; eGFR−, eGFR ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; eGFR+, eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • a P<0.05 versus Alb−/eGFR+.

  • b P<0.05 versus Alb+/eGFR−.