Table 1.

General characteristics of dendritic cells and macrophages

Renal DC SubsetsPrecursor Chemokine ReceptorsGeneral FunctionsKey Markers MouseKey Markers HumanReferences
Myeloid/CD11b+- like DCsCommon MDPs in the BM; CCR7, CCR2Tissue surveillance; immune tolerance Ag transport to LNs, activation of T helper cells; recruitment of other immune cells to the kidney in GN and PNCD11chighCD11chigh9,11
F4/80+F4/80+
CX3CR1+BDCA-1+
CD11b+
Crosspresenting DCs/CD8α+-like DCsCDPIn renal LNs, CTL crosstolerance; very sparse in the kidney in lymph node T-cell activation; role within the kidney is unclearCD11chighCD11chigh41,114
XCR1+CD11bBDCA-3+
CLEC9A+CD14
XCR1+CD1a+
CD103+
Plasma-cytoid DCCDPPossibly viral clearance through type I IFN; potential role in lupus nephritisCD11cint CD11b CD8α B220+ Gr1+BDCA-2+115
CD11c
Monocyte-derived/inflammatory DCMonocyte-derivedInnate defenses against Tip-DCs proinflammatory cytokine productionCD11c+ CD11b+DC-SIGN/CD209a+ requires additional study9,10
F4/80+
Ly6C+
Inflammatory macrophages/Ly6C+ macrophagesCCR2+ MDPDisplays high phagocytic activity; cytokine releaseF4/80+CD14high10
Ly6C+CD16
CD11c
Ly6C macrophagesCX3CR1+Sentinel function; initiation of inflammatory responseF4/80+CD14+22,24
MDPMaintenance of tissue homeostasis; clearance of cell debrisLy6CCD16+
Yolk sac derivedCD11c
  • DC, dendritic cell; MDP, monocyte–DC precursor; BM, bone marrow; Ag, antigen; LN, lymph node; PN, pyelonephritis; CDP, common–DC precursor; CTL, cytotoxic lymphocytes.