Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of the reference cohort

CharacteristicMean, Median, or Proportion
Demographics (n=2267)
 Age (yr)60.5 (16.3)b
 Men1258 (55.5)
 Black610 (26.9)
 Surgical service980 (43.2)
Admission diagnoses (ICD-9)
 Diseases of circulatory system673 (29.7)
 Neoplasms292 (12.9)
 Diseases of the digestive system247 (10.9)
 Injury and poisoning195 (8.6)
 Diseases of the respiratory system208 (9.2)
 Infection and parasitic diseases101(4.5)
 Other548 (24.2)
 Missing2
Comorbidities (ICD-9)
 Cerebrovascular disease260 (11.5)
 Congestive heart failure755 (32.8)
 Diabetes mellitus689 (30.4)
 Liver disease333 (14.7)
 CKD624 (27.5)
 Malignancy583 (25.7)
 Metastasis199 (8.8)
AKI occurred while in the ICU707 (31.2)
Inpatient mortality225 (9.9)
Renal measurements
 Admission creatinine (mg/dl)1.09 (0.76–1.60)
 C0 creatinine (mg/dl)0.91 (0.59–1.39)
 C1 creatinine (mg/dl)1.37 (0.98–1.90)
 Maximum achieved creatinine (mg/dl)1.58 (1.11–2.34)
 Days from admission to AKI2.68 (1.35–5.98)
 Days from AKI to RRTa1.90 (0.80–5.40)
 Days from AKI to inpatient mortalitya4.28 (1.69–13.75)
  • Data are expressed as N (%) or median (interquartile range). ICD-9, International Classification of Disease-9; ICU, intensive care unit; C0, baseline creatinine value that allowed Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes AKI criteria to be met within the relevant time interval (this is the clinical equivalent of the true serum creatinine value of the simulation cohort); C1, creatinine value that met Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes AKI criteria.

  • a Among participants who experienced this outcome.

  • b Mean (SD).