Table 2.

Patient demographics, zip code characteristics, and comorbidities

Patient CharacteristicIndex Fistula (n=12,384)Index Graft (n=4080)P Value
Mean age, y77.178.0<0.001
Female5499 (59.4)2424 (44.4)<0.001
Race/ethnicity<0.001
 White/non-Hispanic8399 (67.8)2110 (51.7)
 Black2074 (16.7)1261 (30.9)
 Asian466 (3.8)219 (5.4)
 Hispanic1205 (9.7)421 (10.3)
 American Indian/Alaskan122 (1)24 (0.6)
 Other/unknown118 (1)45 (1.1)
Index fistula/graft performed in an inpatient setting2451 (19.8)1057 (25.9)<0.001
Mean total covered billed charges in 12 mo before index fistula/graft creation date (in thousands of dollars)189.8251.6<0.001
Year that index fistula/graft was performed<0.001
 20073142 (25.4)1249 (30.6)
 20082982 (24.1)973 (23.8)
 20093052 (24.6)1001 (24.5)
 20103208 (25.9)857 (21.0)
Month that index fistula/graft was performed0.02
 January1133 (9.1)418 (10.2)
 February1055 (8.5)390 (9.6)
 March1132 (9.1)383 (9.4)
 April1059 (8.6)389 (9.5)
 May1018 (8.2)335 (8.2)
 June1098 (8.0)329 (8.1)
 July995 (8.5)333 (8.2)
 August1052 (7.9)339 (8.3)
 September973 (8.6)320 (7.8)
 October1060 (8.6)325 (8.0)
 November942 (7.6)263 (6.4)
 December867 (7.0)265 (6.3)
State of beneficiary residency (range)15–11321–537<0.001
Beneficiary residency (including Washington DC, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands) (range)0.1–9.10–13.2
Patient zip code characteristics
 Urban9441 (76.2)3272 (80.2)<0.001
 Hispanic1428 (11.5)586 (14.3)<0.001
 Single5335 (43.1)1845 (45.2)<0.001
 Less than high school education2618 (21.1)948 (23.2)<0.001
 Employed7205 (58.2)2325 (57.0)<0.001
 Poor1609 (13.0)608 (14.9)<0.001
 Sensory disability among older adults1797 (14.5)597 (14.6)0.19
 Noninstitutionalized older adults with physical disability3651 (29.5)1242 (30.4)<0.001
 Mental disability1397 (11.3)492 (12)<0.001
 Self-care disability1241 (10)438 (10.7)<0.001
 Difficulty going outside the home disability2610 (21.1)912 (22.3)<0.001
 Social security income (in thousands of dollars)11.210.9<0.001
 Older adults in an institution546 (4)181 (4)0.79
 Median household income (in thousands of dollars)42.941.5<0.001
Patient comorbidities
 Hypertension12,258 (99)4044 (99.1)0.45
 Diabetes9068 (73.2)3161 (77.5)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation3601 (29.1)1216 (29.8)0.38
 Heart failure9705 (78.4)3406 (83.5)<0.001
 Stroke/transient ischemic attack3097 (25)1292 (31.7)<0.001
 Ischemic heart disease9885 (79.8)3384 (82.9)<0.001
 Acute myocardial infarction1874 (15.1)646 (15.8)0.28
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease5395 (43.6)1898 (46.5)0.001
 Hyperlipidemia10,659 (86.1)3445 (84.4)0.01
 Anemia12,126 (97.9)4032 (98.8)<0.001
 Endometrial cancer109 (0.9)40 (1)0.56
 Prostate cancer1110 (9.0)324 (7.9)0.05
 Lung cancer212 (1.7)63 (1.5)0.47
 Breast cancer419 (3.4)220 (5.4)<0.001
 Colorectal cancer546 (4.4)236 (5.8)<0.001
 Alzheimer’s disease548 (4.4)239 (7.2)<0.001
 Dementia1956 (15.8)988 (24.2)<0.001
 Cataract8354 (67.5)2764 (67.7)0.73
 Glaucoma2963 (23.9)1125 (27.6)<0.001
 Hip/pelvic fracture563 (4.5)296 (7.3)<0.001
 Depression3438 (27.8)1338 (32.8)<0.001
 Osteoporosis1652 (13.3)695 (17)<0.001
 Rheumatoid arthritis/osteoarthritis6356 (51.3)2237 (54.8)<0.001
 Asthma1790 (14.5)679 (16.6)0.001
 Acquired hypothyroidism2848 (23.0)1093 (26.8)<0.001
 Benign prostatic hyperplasia3392 (27.4)798 (19.6)<0.001
  • Values are n (%) or as otherwise indicated.