Table 4.

Association between hyponatremia and cognitive function measures by multivariable linear regression analysis

VariableModel 1Model 2Model 3
Patients (n)Coefficient (95% CI)P ValuePatients (n)Coefficient (95% CI)P ValuePatients (n)Coefficient (95% CI)P Value
3MS469−5.28 (−8.44 to −-2.13)0.001447−4.56 (−7.87 to −1.25)0.007423−4.54 (−8.83 to −-0.26)0.03
Trails A45722.68 (3.44 to 41.92)0.0243523.43 (3.2 to 43.65)0.0241120.24 (0.12 to 40.35)0.04
Trails B45345.56 (1.30 to 89.81)0.0443139.45 (−6.9 to 85.81)0.0940728.59 (−2.58 to 59.75)0.10
Immediate memory467−3.51 (−8.52 to 1.49)0.17445−2.86 (−8.06 to 2.35)0.28421−2.82 (−8.20 to 2.56)0.30
Delayed memory463−4.41 (−9.26 to −0.45)0.08442−2.85 (−7.83 to 2.14)0.26418−1.01 (−6.12 to 3.99)0.66
Language ability467−3.64 (−7.99 to −0.71)0.10445−3.06 (−7.21 to 1.09)0.15421−3.62 (−8.05 to 0.81)0.10
  • Values in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals. Model 1: adjusted for demographic and clinical measures (including age, sex, level of education, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and mean arterial pressure). Model 2: model 1 plus laboratory measures (including hemoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). Model 3: adjusted for level of education, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, and propensity score. Propensity scores were generated using logistic regression models with hyponatremia as dependent variable. The following variables were used for propensity score matching: age, sex, Charlson index, residual renal function, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and serum albumin. 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; 3MS, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; Trails A, trail making test A; Trails B, trail making test B.