Table 5.

Association of hyponatremia with cognitive impairment and executive dysfunction by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis

Variablecognitive ImpairmentExecutive Dysfunction
Patients (n)OR (95% CI)P ValuePatients (n)OR (95% CI)P Value
Univariable4723.14 (1.69 to 5.83)<0.0014652.44 (1.27 to 4.67)0.007
Multivariable model 14692.43 (1.12 to 5.29)0.034522.27 (0.97 to 5.31)0.06
Multivariable model 24472.17 (1.02 to 4.94)0.0484302.43 (1.01 to 5.87)0.048
Multivariable model 34232.08 (1.00 to 4.84)0.054071.95 (0.94 to 4.49)0.09
  • Model 1: adjusted for demographic and clinical measures (including age, sex, level of education, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and mean arterial pressure). Model 2: model 1 plus laboratory measures (including hemoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). Model 3: adjusted for level of education, body mass index, mean arterial pressure, and propensity score. Propensity scores were generated using logistic regression models with hyponatremia as dependent variable. The following variables were used for propensity score matching: age, sex, Charlson index, residual renal function, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and serum albumin. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.