Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of the study population

CharacteristicMen
(n=1900, 48.9%)Women
(n=1988, 51.1%)Total 
(n=3888)P Value
Age (yr)47 (7)46 (7)46 (7)0.16
Smoking status, n (%)a
 Never smoked363 (19.1)880 (44.3)1243 (32.0)<0.001
 Past smoker330 (17.4)233 (11.7)563 (14.5)
 Current smoker1207 (63.5)875 (44.0)2082 (53.6)
Education, n (%)
 Primary school621 (32.7)1065 (53.6)1686 (43.4)<0.001
 Secondary777 (40.9)830 (41.8)1607 (41.3)
 College325 (17.1)60 (3.0)385 (9.9)
 University177 (9.3)33 (1.7)210 (5.4)
Diabetes, n (%)33 (1.8)29 (1.5)62 (1.6)0.46
Hypertension, n (%)b846 (44.5)792 (39.9)1638 (42.1)0.003
History of cardiovascular disease, n (%)2 (0.1)0 (0.0)2 (0.1)0.15
Cholesterol (mg/dl)256 (44)256 (48)256 (46)0.87
Systolic BP (mmHg) 135 (16)134 (19)134 (18)0.03
Diastolic BP (mmHg)86 (10)85 (10)85 (10)<0.001
Triglycerides (mg/dl)97 (49)80 (34)87 (42)<0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)26 (3)24 (4)25 (4)<0.001
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl)84 (13)79 (11)81 (12)<0.001
Proteinuria, n (%)c30 (1.6)9 (0.5)39 (1.1)0.001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)92 (13)87 (13)89 (13)<0.001
  • Data are given as the mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated.

  • a Smoking was categorized as past smoker, current smoker, and never smoked based on self-report.

  • b Hypertension was defined as systolic BP >140 mmHg or diastolic BP >90 mmHg or receiving hypertension treatment.

  • c During the Reykjavik Study visits, urine protein was determined using reagent strip testing to provide semiquantitative results. Participants with 1+ or higher were considered to have proteinuria.