Table 3.

Univariable association, prediction, and optimal cutoff values of individual biomarkers for clinical outcomes

BiomarkerRecoveryaMortalitya
Odds Ratio (95% CI)AUROC (95% CI)Optimal Cutoff (Median)cOdds Ratio (95% CI)AUROC (95% CI)Optimal Cutoff (Median)c
Inflammation
 IL-60.80 (0.73 to 0.88)b0.61 (0.57 to 0.65)96.54 (177.68)1.33 (1.22 to 1.45)b0.63 (0.59 to 0.67)232.76 (179.47)
 IL-80.73 (0.65 to 0.81)b0.63 (0.59 to 0.67)99.48 (103.54)1.49 (1.34 to 1.66)b0.66 (0.62 to 0.70)108.48 (103.54)
 IL-100.83 (0.75 to 0.93)b0.57 (0.53 to 0.61)13.60 (17.29)1.30 (1.17 to 1.45)b0.60 (0.56 to 0.63)30.88 (17.29)
 IL-180.79 (0.70 to 0.90)b0.58 (0.54 to 0.62)103.54 (102.51)1.36 (1.21 to 1.54)b0.60 (0.57 to 0.64)82.27 (102.51)
 MIF0.85 (0.78 to 0.93)b0.57 (0.53 to 0.61)92.76 (254.68)1.33 (1.22 to 1.46)b0.62 (0.58 to 0.66)113.30 (254.68)
Apoptosis
 TNFR I0.54 (0.41 to 0.73)b0.61 (0.57 to 0.65)8955.29 (13095.19)1.77 (1.33 to 2.37)b0.60 (0.56 to 0.64)9136.20 (13095.19)
 TNFR II0.73 (0.55 to 0.95)b0.55 (0.51 to 0.59)5653.33 (5653.33)1.41 (1.08 to 1.84)b0.55 (0.51 to 0.59)5710.15 (5653.33)
 DR-50.82 (0.69 to 0.97)b0.55 (0.51 to 0.60)202.35 (214.86)1.41 (1.19 to 1.67)b0.58 (0.54 to 0.62)206.44 (208.51)
  • MIF, macrophage migration inhibitory factor; TNFR, TNF receptor; DR, death receptor; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; AUROC, area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve.

  • a For recovery, an odds ratio >1 indicates that higher biomarker concentration is associated with higher renal recovery, and an odds ratio <1 indicates nonrecovery. For the mortality model, odds ratio >1 indicates that higher biomarker concentration is associated with higher mortality and odds ratio <1 indicates lower mortality. The entire cohort was used to estimate the odds ratios for each biomarker.

  • b P<0.05.

  • c Raw biomarker concentration in pg/ml. Optimal cutoff values were derived using the validation cohort of 423 participants.