Table 1.

Baseline patient characteristics

CharacteristicControl Dialysate Temperature 37°C (n=28)Individualized Cooled Dialysate Temperature (n=26)
Age (y)60 (25)60 (26)
Female (%)8 (36)7 (33)
BMI (kg/m2)28±628±6
BSA (m2)1.9±0.21.9±0.2
Systolic BP (mmHg)142 (28)140 (28)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)76±1375±11
Pulse pressure (mmHg)62 (29)59 (30)
Medical history
 HD vintage (d)135±69122±69
 Tunneled catheter (%)8 (29)5 (19)
 Arteriovenous fistula (%)20 (71)21 (81)
 Ischemic heart disease (%)4 (14)3 (12)
 Current/ex-smoker (%)8 (36)13 (59)
 Peripheral vascular disease (%)2 (9)5 (24)
Primary renal disease
 Diabetes mellitus (%)8 (29)6 (21)
 GN (%)4 (14)3 (11)
 Interstitial nephritis (%)2 (7)4 (14)
 Vasculitis (%)3 (11)1 (4)
 Polycystic kidney disease (%)2 (7)1 (4)
 Renovascular disease/malignant hypertension (%)2 (7)4 (14)
 Plasma cell dyscrasias (%)1 (4)3 (11)
 Unknown/others (%)6 (21)4 (14)
Medication
 Treated hypertension (%)21 (75)21 (81)
 RAAS antagonist (%)8 (29)6 (23)
β-Blocker (%)9 (32)10 (39)
 Statin use (%)12 (43)11 (42)
 Phosphate binder
  Calcium containing (%)11 (39)4 (15)
  Noncalcium (%)9 (32)5 (19)
 Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (%)21 (75)26 (69)
 Vitamin D analog (%)16 (57)15 (58)
Laboratory values
 Hemoglobin (g/dl)10.9±1.411.1±1.6
 Calcium (mg/dl)9.2±0.89.2±0.4
 Phosphate (mg/dl)5.0 (1.2)4.7 (2.8)
 Albumin (g/dl)3.6±0.43.6±0.3
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl)127.6 (23.2)139.2 (30.9)
 Ultrafiltration per session (L)2.0±0.92.0±0.8
  • Continuous data were tested for normality and summarized using mean±SD or median (interquartile range). Categorical data were expressed as counts (percentages). BMI, body mass Index; BSA, body surface area; HD, hemodialysis; RAAS, renin-angiotensin aldosterone system.