Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of enrolled patients with AKI in developed and emerging countries at intensive care unit admission

CharacteristicTotal (n=745)Developed Countries (n=316)Emerging Countries (n=429)P Valuea
Age (yr)60.5±18.462.2±16.959.2±19.40.004
Men (%)62.261.762.70.92
White (%)43.061.028.7<0.001a
Body weight (kg)75.7±21.684.1±26.969.6±13.6<0.001a
CKD (%)47.538.354.3<0.001a
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)64.8±41.073.6±38.158.2±41.90.001a
Hypertension (%)60.261.359.30.77
Diabetes (%)35.333.536.60.67
Coronary artery disease (%)32.435.130.30.28
Heart failure (%)25.623.327.50.20
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (%)14.317.611.70.04
Peripheral artery disease (%)12.311.812.70.82
Cirrhosis (%)8.811.86.40.01
Underwent surgery (%)0.001a
 Urgent surgery12.617.98.4
 Elective surgery17.017.316.8
 Cardiac surgery6.28.24.70.05
Creatinine at ICU admission (mg/dl)1.7±1.71.6±1.31.7±1.80.001a
Main diagnosis (%)<0.001a
 Septic shock8.98.98.9
 Cardiologic20.418.721.7
 Respiratory10.616.26.5
 Nephrologic13.02.520.7
On mechanical ventilation (%)37.247.529.6<0.001a
On vasopressors (%)23.533.216.3<0.001a
On diuretics (%)38.729.445.5<0.001a
Oliguria (%)28.531.726.10.11
Sepsis (%)44.352.138.0<0.001a
APACHE III score55.5±26.761.1±27.551.1±25.2<0.01
SOFA score6.2±4.06.8±4.15.7±3.9<0.001a
  • eGFR was based on Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimating equation. Values expressed with a plus/minus sign are the mean±SD. ICU, intensive care unit; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.

  • a P≤0.002 represented significant difference, with the Bonferroni correction.