Table 3.

Factors that alter renal regulation of magnesium

Increase Magnesium AbsorptionDecrease Magnesium Absorption
Dietary magnesium restrictionHypermagnesemia
Parathyroid hormoneMetabolic acidosis
GlucagonHypercalcemia
CalcitoninPhosphate depletion
VasopressinPotassium depletion
AldosteroneDiuretics (loop and thiazide)
InsulinAntibiotics (aminoglycosides)
AmilorideAntifungals (amphotericin B)
Metabolic alkalosisAntivirals (foscarnet)
EGFChemotherapy agents (cisplatin)
Immunosuppressants (tacrolimus, cyclosporine, rapamycin)
EGF receptor antagonists
FHHNC caused by mutations in claudin-16 and claudin-19
HSH caused by mutations in TRPM6
Bartter’s syndrome caused by mutations in NKCC2 (type 1), ROMK (type II), ClC-Kb (type III), or CaSR (type V)
Dominant hypomagnesemia caused by mutations of the FXYD2 gene, HNF1B, or CNNM2
Isolated dominant hypomagnesemia caused by mutations of Kv1.1
Isolated recessive hypomagnesemia caused by mutations of pro-EGF
Gitelman’s syndrome caused by mutations of NCC
EAST/SeSAME caused by mutations in Kir4.1
  • FHHNC, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis; HSH, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia; TRPM6, transient receptor potential melastatin 6; NKCC2, Na+-K+-2Cl cotransporter; ROMK, renal outer medullary potassium K+; CLC-Kb, Cl channel Kb; CaSR, calcium-sensing receptor; FXYD2, sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase gamma chain (a protein that in humans is encoded by the FXYD2 gene); HFN1B, hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 beta; CNNM2, cyclin M2; NCC, thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl Cotransporter; EAST (epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and tubulopathy)/SeSAME (seizures, sensineural deafness, ataxia, mental retardation, and electrolyte imbalance).